Because two acetyl-CoA molecules are produced from each glucose molecule, two cycles are required per glucose molecule. Therefore, at the end of two cycles, the products are: two GTP, six NADH, two QH2, and four CO2
|The sum of all reactions in the citric acid cycle is:||Acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD+ + Q + GDP + Pi + 2 H2O||→ CoA-SH + 3 NADH + 3 H+ + QH2 + GTP + 2 CO2|
|Combining the reactions occurring during the pyruvate oxidation with those occurring during the citric acid cycle, the following overall pyruvate oxidation reaction is obtained:||Pyruvate ion + 4 NAD+ + Q + GDP + Pi + 2 H2O||→ 4 NADH + 4 H+ + QH2 + GTP + 3 CO2|
|Combining the above reaction with the ones occurring in the course of glycolysis, the following overall glucose oxidation reaction (excluding reactions in the respiratory chain) is obtained:||Glucose + 10 NAD+ + 2 Q + 2 ADP + 2 GDP + 4 Pi + 2 H2O||→ 10 NADH + 10 H+ + 2 QH2 + 2 ATP + 2 GTP + 6 CO2|
The above reactions are balanced if Pi represents the H2PO4- ion, ADP and GDP the ADP2- and GDP2- ions, respectively, and ATP and GTP the ATP3- and GTP3- ions, respectively.
The total number of ATP obtained after complete oxidation of one glucose in glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation is estimated to be between 30 and 38. A recent assessment of the total ATP yield with the updated proton-to-ATP ratios provides an estimate of 29.85 ATP per glucose molecule.
Read more about this topic: Citric Acid Cycle
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