Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
According to the cognitive-behavioural model of illness, the patient's interpretation of symptoms plays an important role in shaping their behaviour and perpetuating the illness. There are two main cognitive-behavioural hypotheses for CFS. The weak hypothesis assumes that CFS is irreversible and that CBT can help the patient cope with the illness better. The strong hypothesis says that CFS is entirely reversible and that the illness is perpetuated only by the patient's cognitions, behaviour and emotions.
The first trial finding the efficacy of CBT for CFS was published in 1996 by Sharpe and colleagues in Oxford. More recently a systematic review of RCTs found that there is moderate evidence of benefit for CBT in CFS, but that the effectiveness of CBT for CFS outside of specialist settings has been questioned and the quality of the evidence is low. A 2008 Cochrane review of CBT concluded, "CBT is more effective than usual care for reducing fatigue symptoms in adults with CFS, with 40% of participants assigned to CBT showing clinical response at post-treatment, in comparison with 26% assigned to usual care control.", however, it also stated that the benefits of CBT in sustaining clinical response at follow up are inconclusive, and there were no conclusive improvements to physical functioning, depression, anxiety or psychological distress at either post treatment or later follow-up. Data on adverse effects were not systematically presented by any included study. The review also concluded that while the quantity and quality of the evidence has grown in recent years "there is a surprising lack of high quality evidence on the effectiveness of CBT alone or in combination with other treatments to inform the development of clinical management programmes for people with CFS". One uncontrolled study with no follow-up found that CBT could facilitate full recovery in some patients, with 69% of the patient cohort no longer meeting the CDC criteria for CFS and "full recovery" occurring in 23% of CFS patients after CBT using the most comprehensive definition of recovery.
Another systematic review on CBT finds that "CBT was associated with a significant positive effect on fatigue, symptoms, physical functioning and school attendance.", but had not proved to be effective in restoring the ability to work. The reviewers state that the quality of many recent trials on CBT are lower quality randomized controlled trials or trials that did not involve random allocation. The reviewers also state that one recent, good quality trial of CBT in children and adolescence supports the effectiveness of CBT. The reviewers state that reasons for withdrawals typically remain unreported, and that a degree of publication bias seems to be present in CFS/ME literature as a whole. In one study, the effect of CBT has been demonstrated up to five years after therapy.
A 2007 meta-analysis found that the effectiveness of CBT depends on the diagnostic criteria used, with studies using the Oxford criteria having a trend towards significantly higher effect sizes that those using the CDC criteria. The review also notes that CBT for chronic fatigue disorders has about the same efficacy as diverse psychological treatments for a variety of psychological disorders.
A 2010 meta-analysis of trials that measured physical activity before and after CBT showed that although CBT effectively reduced fatigue, activity levels were not improved by CBT and changes in physical activity were not related to changes in fatigue. They conclude that the effect of CBT on fatigue is not mediated by a change in physical activity.
According to a 2006 systematic review, "very few studies have assessed the effectiveness of interventions for children and young people and for severely affected patients. The effectiveness of CBT for adolescents is supported by a recent high-quality RCT, although this had only 69 participants." Currently there is no research into the effectiveness of CBT for the severely affected, and these patients may be effectively excluded from trials due to the need to attend a clinic. Some CBT trials suffer from large dropout rates, up to 42% in one study, with a mean dropout rate of 16%. This compares to a 17% dropout rate in a trial of 432 patients receiving CBT for anxiety, "so is not unusually high" according to a 2007 meta-analysis.
A 2011 meta-analysis concluded that both CBT and GET are both equally efficacious treatments for CFS, but that CBT may be a more effective treatment when patients have comorbid anxiety or depression.
CBT has been criticised by patients' organisations because of negative reports from some of their members which have indicated that CBT can sometimes make people worse, a common result across multiple patient surveys. One such survey conducted by Action for ME in 2001 found that out of the 285 participants who reported using CBT, 7% reported it to be helpful, 67% reported no change, and 26% reported that it made their condition worse. A subsequent survey in 2008 reported that 50% of patients found CBT helpful, 38% reported no change, and 12% felt that it made their illness worse, though it remained among the lowest-rated treatments in the survey despite the significant increase.
Other articles related to "cognitive behavioral therapy, behavioral, cognitive, therapy":
... Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which involves teaching clients to challenge automatic thoughts and engage in behavioral experiments (for example, in session eating of "forbidden foods") has demonstrated efficacy ... Research suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most effective psychotherapeutic treatment for bulimia nervosa ... Barker (2003) states that research has found 40-60% of patients using cognitive behaviour therapy to become symptom free ...
... The most effective treatment available is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) ... Cognitive behavior therapy may include systematic desensitization or controlled exposure to the feared situation ... Acceptance and Commitment Therapy ACT is a mindfulness based third generation form of CBT, and is also demonstrating it's usefulness in treating social anxiety ...
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... The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT) was founded in 1966 ... who support, use, and/or disseminate behavioral and cognitive approaches ...
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