Cholestasis can be suspected when there is an elevation of both 5'-nucleotidase and ALP enzymes. With a few exceptions, the optimal test for cholestasis would be elevations of serum bile acid levels. However, this is not normally available in most clinical settings. The gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) enzyme was previously thought to be helpful in confirming a hepatic source of ALP; however, GGT elevations are markedly sensitive and lack the necessary specificity to be a useful confirmatory test for ALP. Normally GGT and ALP are anchored to membranes of hepatocytes and are released in small amounts in hepatocellular damage. In cholestasis, synthesis of these enzymes is induced and they are made soluble. GGT is elevated because it leaks out from the bile duct cells due to pressure from inside bile duct.
In a later stage of cholestasis AST, ALT and bilirubin may be elevated due to liver damage as a secondary effect of cholestasis.
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