Chlorpyrifos

Chlorpyrifos (IUPAC name: O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl phosphorothioate) is a crystalline organophosphate insecticide. It was introduced in 1965 by Dow Chemical Company and is known by many trade names (see table), including Dursban and Lorsban. It acts on the nervous system of insects by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase.

Chlorpyrifos is moderately toxic and chronic exposure has been linked to neurological effects, developmental disorders, and autoimmune disorders. Exposure during pregnancy affects the mental development of children, and the use in homes in the U.S. has been banned since 2001. In agricultural use, it remains "one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides", according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Read more about ChlorpyrifosManufacture and Use, History, Health Effects, Effects On Aquatic Life and Bees, Exposure

Other articles related to "chlorpyrifos":

Chlorpyrifos - Exposure
... by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found TCPy, a metabolite specific to chlorpyrifos, in the urine of 91% of people tested ... An independent analysis of the CDC data claims that Dow has contributed 80% of the chlorpyrifos body burden of people living in the US ... A 2008 study found dramatic drops in the urinary levels of chlorpyrifos metabolites when children switched from conventional to organic diets ...
Organophosphate Poisoning - Pathophysiology
... metabolites in several OP insecticides such as chlorpyrifos oxon, and diazoxon, as well as, nerve agents such as soman, sarin, and VX ... in mice are found to be more sensitive to the toxicity of pesticides, like chlorpyrifos ... Chlorpyrifos oxon or diazoxon) ...
Reference Dose - Example
... the following determination of the RfD for the insecticide chlorpyrifos, adapted from the EPA's Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision for chlorpyrifos ... rats were administered a one-time dose of chlorpyrifos and blood cholinesterase activity was monitored ... showed that fetuses and children are even more sensitive to chlorpyrifos than adults, so the EPA applies an additional ten-fold uncertainty factor to protect ...
Dow Chemical Company - History - Chlorpyrifos
... Chlorpyrifos, marketed by Dow as Dursban, is well known as a home and garden insecticide ... Dow contributed 80% of human exposure to chlorpyrifos based on their estimate of Dow's market share in 2004 ...
Organophosphate Poisoning - Society and Culture
... For example, in 1999 the EPA restricted the use of chlorpyrifos in households (under the commercial name Dursban) ... Chlorpyrifos remains one of the most widely used pesticides ... to children and other bystanders from volatilization of chlorpyrifos from treated crops ...