Chlor - Characteristics - Chemical Characteristics - Chemistry and Compounds

Chemistry and Compounds

See also category: Chlorine compounds

Chlorine exists in all odd numbered oxidation states from −1 to +7, as well as the elemental state of zero and four in chlorine dioxide (see table below, and also structures in chlorite). Progressing through the states, hydrochloric acid can be oxidized using manganese dioxide, or hydrogen chloride gas oxidized catalytically by air to form elemental chlorine gas.

Name Formula Characteristic compounds
−1 chlorides Cl ionic chlorides, organic chlorides, hydrochloric acid
0 chlorine Cl2 elemental chlorine
+1 hypochlorites ClO sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite
+3 chlorites ClO−
sodium chlorite
+4 chlorine(IV) ClO2 chlorine dioxide
+5 chloryl, chlorates ClO−
3 ClO+
potassium chlorate, chloric acid, dichloryl trisulfate 2.
+6 chlorine(VI) Cl2O6 dichlorine hexoxide (gas). In liquid or solid disproportionates to mix of +5 and +7 oxidation states, as ionic chloryl perchlorate +−
+7 perchlorates ClO−
perchloric acid, perchlorate salts such as magnesium perchlorate, dichlorine heptoxide

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