Chatino Language - Morphology - Causative Alternations

Causative Alternations

There is also a morphological causative in Chatino, expressed by the causative prefix /x-/, /xa-/, /y/, or by the palatalization of the first consonant. The choice of prefix appears to be partially determined by the first consonant of the verb, though there are some irregular cases. The prefix /x/ occurs before some roots that start with one of the following consonants: /c, qu, ty/ or with the vowels /u,a/, e.g.

catá chcu 'bathe (reflexive)' xcatá ji'i 'bathe (transitive)'
quityi 'dry (reflexive)' xquityi ji'i 'dry (tr)'
ndyu'u 'is alive' nxtyu'u ji'i 'waken'
ndyubi' 'is put out' nxubi' 'put out'
tyatsi' 'is buried' xatsi' 'bury'

The prefix /xa/ is put before certain roots that begin with /t/, e.g.

nduu 'is stopping' nxatuu 'to stop something'

Palatalization occurs in some roots that begin with /t/, e.g.

taa 'will give' tyaa 'will pay'

(Pride 1970: 95-96)

The alternations seen here are similar to the causative alternation seen in the related Zapotec languages.

Read more about this topic:  Chatino Language, Morphology