Bornholmsk Dialect - Morphology - Nominal Inflection

Nominal Inflection

Bornholmsk has retained three distinct grammatical genders, like Icelandic or Norwegian, and unlike standard Danish or Swedish. The gender inflection exists not only in the definite article (like in Norwegian and certain Danish dialects), but also in the adjectives:

indefinite definite
without adjective with adjective without adjective with adjective
Masculine inj hæst inj go-er hæst hæst-inj denj goa hæst-inj "(good) horse"
Feminine en sâg en go sâg sâg-en den go-a sâg-en "(good) case / thing"
Neuter et huz et go-t huz huz-ed de go-a huz-ed "(good) house"
Masculine hæsta go-a hæsta hæsta-na di go-a hæsta-na "(good) horses"
Feminine sâgar go-a sâgar sâger-na di go-a sâger-na "(good) cases / things"
Neuter huz go-a huz huz-en di go-a huz-en "(good) houses"
indefinite definite
without adjective with adjective without adjective with adjective
Masculine en hest en god hest hest-en den god-e hest "(good) horse"
Feminine en sag en god sag sag-en den god-e sag "(good) case / thing"
Neuter et hus et god-t hus hus-et det god-e hus "(good) house"
Masculine heste god-e heste heste-ne de god-e heste "(good) horses"
Feminine sager god-e sager sager-ne de god-e sager "(good) cases / things"
Neuter huse god-e huse huse-ne de god-e huse "(good) houses"

-er is the old ending of the masculine nominative still extant in German (-er), Icelandic (-ur) and Faroese (-ur), but lost in the other Scandinavian dialects (except for certain old phrases like Danish en ungersvend, originally en unger svend, "a young fellow"). In Bornholmsk, it is used in all cases (since the dialect has not retained the Old Danish case flexion).

Masculine nouns normally have the plural ending -a - and this is also the case when the singular ends in a vowel (where Standard Danish would have -er), e.g. skâwwa "woods" (sg. skâww), tima "hours" (sg. tima). Feminine nouns have -er or, when they end in a vowel in the singular, -ar. Neuter nouns have zero ending, and the definite article of the neuter plural is -en, e.g. huz "houses", huzen "the houses" (sg. huz)

Read more about this topic:  Bornholmsk Dialect, Morphology

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