Alternatives To Bony Endoskeletons
There are several evolutionary alternatives to mammillary bone; though they have some similar functions, they are not completely functionally analogous to bone.
- Exoskeletons offer support, protection and levers for movement similar to endoskeletal bone. Different types of exoskeletons include shells, carapaces (consisting of calcium compounds or silica) and chitinous exoskeletons.
- A true endoskeleton (that is, protective tissue derived from mesoderm) is also present in Echinoderms. Porifera (sponges) possess simple endoskeletons that consist of calcareous or siliceous spicules and a spongin fiber network.
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