Quantum Black Holes
Quantum black holes are so small that quantum mechanical effects play an important role in their physics and evolution. In a landmark paper Stephen Hawking showed that all black holes continuously emit black-body radiation through the mechanism of quantum tunnelling, the elapsed time tev required for their complete evaporation due to the attendant steady loss of mass being proportional to the cube of the hole's mass. Black holes having more than one lunar mass (M☽, with a Schwarzschild radius of ~108 μm) absorb a greater amount of energy from the cosmic microwave background radiation than they emit as Hawking radiation, and so in practical terms do not evaporate. Very small black holes evaporate very quickly: a hole massing around 228 kg (weighing a quarter-ton at the surface of the Earth) would evaporate in a nanosecond, radiating enormous energy in the form of gamma rays—a fact which poses difficulties for some of the fictional treatments cataloged below. A commonly proposed hypothesis accounting for the possible existence of quantum black holes is that they are primordial black holes, produced by the extreme density of matter present during the universe's early expansion.
Two cases merit discussion:
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Famous quotes containing the words holes, quantum and/or black:
“The danger lies in forgetting what we had. The flow between generations becomes a trickle, grandchildren tape-recording grandparents memories on special occasions perhapsno casual storytelling jogged by daily life, there being no shared daily life what with migrations, exiles, diasporas, rendings, the search for work. Or there is a shared daily life riddled with holes of silence.”
—Adrienne Rich (b. 1929)
“A personality is an indefinite quantum of traits which is subject to constant flux, change, and growth from the birth of the individual in the world to his death. A character, on the other hand, is a fixed and definite quantum of traits which, though it may be interpreted with slight differences from age to age and actor to actor, is nevertheless in its essentials forever fixed.”
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“Thats the down-town frieze,
Principally the church steeple,
A black line beside a white line;
And the stack of the electric plant,
A black line drawn on flat air.”
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