Benzoic Acid - Chemistry - Aromatic Ring

Aromatic Ring

Electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction will take place mainly in 3-position due to the electron-withdrawing carboxylic group; i.e. benzoic acid is meta directing.

The second substitution reaction (on the right) is slower because the first nitro group is deactivating. Conversely, if an activating group (electron-donating) was introduced (e.g., alkyl), a second substitution reaction would occur more readily than the first and the disubstituted product might accumulate to a significant extent.

Read more about this topic:  Benzoic Acid, Chemistry

Other articles related to "aromatic ring, aromatic, aromatic rings, ring":

Classes of Amines
... An aliphatic amine has no aromatic ring attached directly to the nitrogen atom ... Aromatic amines have the nitrogen atom connected to an aromatic ring as in the various anilines ... The aromatic ring decreases the alkalinity of the amine, depending on its substituents ...
... Cleavage of aromatic rings is one of the most important functions of dioxygenases, which play key roles in the degradation of aromatic compounds ... The substrates of ring-cleavage dioxygenases can be classified into two groups according to the mode of scission of the aromatic ring ... enzymes use a non-haem Fe(III) to cleave the aromatic ring between two hydroxyl groups (ortho-cleavage), whereas extradiol enzymes use a non-haem Fe(II) to ...
Aromatic Ring Current
... An aromatic ring current is an effect observed in aromatic molecules such as benzene and naphthalene ... directed perpendicular to the plane of the aromatic system, a ring current is induced in the delocalized π electrons of the aromatic ring ... in bonds as they would be in most non-aromatic molecules, they respond much more strongly to the magnetic field ...

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