The most common reactions of benzene involve substitution of a proton by other groups. Electrophilic aromatic substitution is a general method of derivatizing benzene. Benzene is sufficiently nucleophilic that it undergoes substitution by acylium ions and alkyl carbocations to give substituted derivatives.
The most widely practiced example of this reaction is the ethylation of benzene.
Approximately 24,700,000 tons were produced in 1999. Highly instructive but of far less industrial significance is the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene (and many other aromatic rings) using an alkyl halide in the presence of a strong Lewis acid catalyst. Similarly, the Friedel-Crafts acylation is a related example of electrophilic aromatic substitution. The reaction involves the acylation of benzene (or many other aromatic rings) with an acyl chloride using a strong Lewis acid catalyst such as aluminium chloride or Iron(III) chloride.
Read more about this topic: Benzene
Other articles related to "reactions, reaction":
... Most important are severe allergic reactions, which can occur at any time of Neumega-therapy ... face, tongue or larynx, shortness of breath, hypotension, shock, fever or skin reactions (urticaria, rash) ... Reactions at the injection site are usually mild and consist of skin-reaction (dermatitis), pain or discoloration ...
... tissues will be utilized by HF in neutralization reactions ... Since F is the strongest oxidizer known currently, it is immune to phase 1 metabolic reactions, which are generally oxidation reactions, in the liver ... These reactions are the body’s first line of defense to biotransform harmful compounds into something more hydrophilic and more easily excreted ...
... molecules through a complex series of very slow reactions in the body known as Amadori reactions, Schiff base reactions, and Maillard reactions which lead to advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) ... Alzheimer's disease (amyloid proteins are side-products of the reactions progressing to AGEs), cancer (acrylamide and other side-products are released), peripheral ...
... The material is a fluoride acceptor ... With xenon hexafluoride it forms XeF5] ...
Famous quotes containing the word reactions:
“Prolonged, indiscriminate reviewing of books is a quite exceptionally thankless, irritating and exhausting job. It not only involves praising trash but constantly inventing reactions towards books about which one has no spontaneous feeling whatever.”
—George Orwell (19031950)
“Separation anxiety is normal part of development, but individual reactions are partly explained by experience, that is, by how frequently children have been left in the care of others.... A mother who is never apart from her young child may be saying to him or her subliminally: You are only safe when Im with you.”
—Cathy Rindner Tempelsman (20th century)
“We have all had the experience of finding that our reactions and perhaps even our deeds have denied beliefs we thought were ours.”
—James Baldwin (19241987)