Four chemical processes contribute to industrial benzene production: catalytic reforming, toluene hydrodealkylation, toluene disproportionation, and steam cracking. According to the ATSDR Toxicological Profile for benzene, between 1978 and 1981, catalytic reformats accounted for approximately 44–50% of the total U.S benzene production.
Until World War II, most benzene was produced as a by-product of coke production (or "coke-oven light oil") in the steel industry. However, in the 1950s, increased demand for benzene, especially from the growing polymers industry, necessitated the production of benzene from petroleum. Today, most benzene comes from the petrochemical industry, with only a small fraction being produced from coal.
Read more about this topic: Benzene
Other articles related to "production":
... but became dissatisfied with being so far removed from aircraft production and quit to form Beechcraft, using the original Travel Air facilities and employing many of the same people ... In 1942 Beech won its first Army-Navy ‘E’ Award production award and became one of the elite five percent of war contracting firms in the country to win five straight awards for production efficiency ... The Bonanza has had the longest production run of any airplane, past or present, in the world ...
... Kaman was awarded a contract for four prototype and 12 production HU2K-1 helicopters in late 1957 ... With no follow-on orders, Kaman ended production in the late 1960s after delivering 184 SH-2s to the US Navy although production would be later restarted in 1971 to manufacture an improved variant ... A significant factor in the reopening of the production line was that the Navy's Sikorsky SH-60 Sea Hawk, which was newer and more capable in anti-submarine operations, was too large to be operated ...
... The relationship between design and production is one of planning and executing ... In contrast, production involves a routine or pre-planned process ... A design may also be a mere plan that does not include a production or engineering process, although a working knowledge of such processes is usually expected of designers ...
... the total expenditure of money used to buy things is a way of measuring production ... Note that if you knit yourself a sweater, it is production but does not get counted as GDP because it is never sold ... if one counts some major activities such as child-rearing (generally unpaid) as production, GDP ceases to be an accurate indicator of production ...
Famous quotes containing the word production:
“Perestroika basically is creating material incentives for the individual. Some of the comrades deny that, but I cant see it any other way. In that sense human nature kinda goes backwards. Its a step backwards. You have to realize the people werent quite ready for a socialist production system.”
—Gus Hall (b. 1910)
“In the production of the necessaries of life Nature is ready enough to assist man.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“From the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.”
—Charles Darwin (18091882)