Barbary Pirates

The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Tunis, Tripoli and Algiers. This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its Berber inhabitants. Their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic seaboard and even South America, and into the North Atlantic as far north as Iceland, but they primarily operated in the western Mediterranean. In addition to seizing ships, they engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns and villages, mainly in Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal, but also in the British Isles, the Netherlands and as far away as Iceland. The main purpose of their attacks was to capture Christian slaves for the Islamic market in North Africa and the Middle East.

While such raids had occurred since soon after the Muslim conquest of the region, the terms Barbary pirates and Barbary corsairs are normally applied to the raiders active from the 16th century onwards, when the frequency and range of the slavers' attacks increased and Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli came under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, either as directly administered provinces or as autonomous dependencies known as the Barbary States. Similar raids were undertaken from Bou Regreg and Salé and other ports in Morocco, but strictly speaking Morocco, which never came under Ottoman dominance, was not one of the Barbary States.

Corsairs captured thousands of ships, and long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants, discouraging settlement until the 19th century. From the 16th to 19th century, corsairs captured an estimated 800,000 to 1.25 million people as slaves. Some corsairs were European outcasts such as John Ward, Zymen Danseker and Henry Mainwaring. Hayreddin Barbarossa and Oruç Reis, the Barbarossa brothers, who took control of Algiers on behalf of the Ottomans in the early 16th century, were also famous corsairs. The European pirates brought state-of-the-art sailing and shipbuilding techniques to the Barbary Coast around 1600, which enabled the corsairs to extend their activities into the Atlantic Ocean, and the impact of Barbary raids peaked in the early to mid-17th century.

The scope of corsair activity began to diminish in the latter part of the 17th century, as the more powerful European navies started to compel the Barbary States to make peace and cease attacking their shipping. However, the ships and coasts of Christian states without such effective protection continued to suffer until the early 19th century. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna in 1814-5 European powers agreed upon the need to suppress the Barbary corsairs entirely and the threat was largely subdued, although occasional incidents continued until finally terminated by the French conquest of Algiers in 1830.

Read more about Barbary PiratesHistory, Barbary Slaves, Infamous Barbary Corsairs, In Fiction

Other articles related to "barbary pirates, barbary, pirate, barbary pirate, pirates":

Barbary Pirates - In Fiction
... Barbary corsairs are protagonists in Le pantere di Algeri (the panthers of Algiers) by Emilio Salgari and appear in a number of other famous novels, including Robinson Crusoe by ... Barbary corsairs also feature in many pornographic novels, such as The Lustful Turk (1828), where the abduction of white women into sexual slavery is an abiding ... One of the stereotypical features of a pirate in popular culture, the eye patch, dates back to the Arab corsair Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah, who wore it after losing an eye in battle in the ...
History Of Gibraltar - Castilian and Spanish Rule (1462-1704) - Barbary Pirate Raids
... Barbary pirates from North Africa took advantage of the weak defences in September 1540 by mounting a major raid on Gibraltar and seizing hundreds of citizens to hold as ... were subsequently released when a Spanish fleet intercepted the pirate ships as they were bringing ransomed hostages back to Gibraltar ... a dangerous place for decades to come as Barbary pirate raids continued although a small squadron of Spanish galleys was based at the port to counter pirate raids, it proved to be of limited effectiveness ...
Slavery In Britain And Ireland - Barbary Pirates
... estimated that between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and Barbary Slave Traders and sold as slaves during this time period ... Barbary pirates were based on that coast of North Africa – what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya ... Reports of Barbary raids and kidnappings of those in France, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom and as far north as Iceland and the fate of those abducted into slavery in North Africa and the ...
1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery - About The Contents of The Petition
... The four men were referring to the widely known stories of Barbary pirates who had established outposts on the coast of North Africa and for hundreds of years had plundered ships ... The Barbary pirates in the period (1518–1587) were allied with the empire in Constantinople and captured slaves to be brought back to North Africa ... In the later period during the 17th century the North African pirate communities became more independent and lived mainly on plunder so the motivation for ...
Islamic Civilization During The European Renaissance - England
... From 1609 to 1616, England lost 466 ships to Barbary pirates, who sold the passengers into slavery in North Africa ... that Lundy, an island in the Bristol Channel which had been a pirate lair for much of the previous half century, had been occupied by three Ottoman pirates who were threatening to burn Ilfracombe ... In 1627, Barbary pirates under command of the Dutch renegade Jan Janszoon operating from the Moroccon port of Salé occupied Lundy ...

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