# Banach Algebra

In mathematics, especially functional analysis, a Banach algebra, named after Stefan Banach, is an associative algebra A over the real or complex numbers which at the same time is also a Banach space. The algebra multiplication and the Banach space norm are required to be related by the following inequality:

(i.e., the norm of the product is less than or equal to the product of the norms). This ensures that the multiplication operation is continuous. This property is found in the real and complex numbers; for instance, |-6×5| ≤ |-6|×|5|.

If in the above we relax Banach space to normed space the analogous structure is called a normed algebra.

A Banach algebra is called "unital" if it has an identity element for the multiplication whose norm is 1, and "commutative" if its multiplication is commutative. Any Banach algebra (whether it has an identity element or not) can be embedded isometrically into a unital Banach algebra so as to form a closed ideal of . Often one assumes a priori that the algebra under consideration is unital: for one can develop much of the theory by considering and then applying the outcome in the original algebra. However, this is not the case all the time. For example, one cannot define all the trigonometric functions in a Banach algebra without identity.

The theory of real Banach algebras can be very different from the theory of complex Banach algebras. For example, the spectrum of an element of a complex Banach algebra can never be empty, whereas in a real Banach algebra it could be empty for some elements.

Banach algebras can also be defined over fields of p-adic numbers. This is part of p-adic analysis.

Read more about Banach Algebra:  Examples, Properties, Spectral Theory, Ideals and Characters

### Other articles related to "banach algebra, algebra":

Banach Algebra - Ideals and Characters
... Let A  be a unital commutative Banach algebra over C ... Since a maximal ideal in A is closed, is a Banach algebra that is a field, and it follows from the Gelfand-Mazur theorem that there is a bijection between the set of all ... spectrum of in the formula above, is the spectrum as element of the algebra C(Δ(A)) of complex continuous functions on the compact space Δ(A) ...
List Of Statements Undecidable In ZFC - Functional Analysis
... conjecture, namely that there exists a discontinuous homomorphism from the Banach algebra C(X) (where X is some infinite compact Hausdorff space) into any other Banach algebra, was independent of ZFC ... CH implies that for any infinite X there exists such a homomorphism into any Banach algebra ... Phillips, the existence of outer automorphisms of the Calkin algebra depends on set theoretic assumptions beyond ZFC ...
Structure Space
... the structure space of a commutative Banach algebra is an analog of the spectrum of a C*-algebra ... It consists of all multiplicative linear functionals on the algebra ... The Gelfand representation of the Banach algebra is a map taking the Banach algebra elements to continuous functions on the structure space ...