Axial Seamount

Axial Seamount (also Coaxial Seamount or Axial Volcano) is a seamount and submarine volcano located on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, approximately 480 km (300 mi) west of Cannon Beach, Oregon. Standing 1,100 m (3,600 ft) high, Axial Seamount is the youngest volcano and current eruptive center of the Cobb-Eickelberg Seamount chain. Located at the center of both a geological hotspot and a mid-ocean ridge, the seamount is geologically complex, and its origins are still poorly understood. Axial Seamount is set on a long, low-lying plateau, with two large rift zones trending 50 km (31 mi) to the northeast and southwest of its center. The volcano features an unusual rectangular caldera, and its flanks are pockmarked by fissures, vents, sheet flows, and pit craters up to 100 m (328 ft) deep; its geology is further complicated by its intersection with several smaller seamounts surrounding it.

Axial Seamount was first detected in the 1970s by satellite altimetry, and mapped and explored by Pisces IV, DSV Alvin, and others through the 1980s. A large package of sensors was dropped on the seamount through 1992, and the New Millennium Observatory was established on its flanks in 1996. Axial Seamount received significant scientific attention following the seismic detection of a submarine eruption at the volcano in January 1998, the first time a submarine eruption had been detected and followed in situ. Subsequent cruises and analysis showed that the volcano had generated lava flows up to 13 m (43 ft) thick, and the total eruptive volume was found to be 18,000–76,000 km3 (4,300–18,000 cu mi). Axial Seamount erupted again in April 2011, producing a mile-wide lava flow and fulfilling a 16-year cycle that had been predicted in 2006.

Read more about Axial SeamountEcology

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Cobb-Eickelberg Seamount Chain
... The Cobb–Eickelberg Seamount chain is a seamount chain stretching from the Aleutian Trench in the north to Axial Seamount, the youngest volcano in the ... Plate drifted in a northwesterly direction, leaving a trail of seamounts in its wake ... The most recent volcanic activity in the chain was at Axial Seamount on January 28, 1998, when a magnitude 4.7 earthquake was recorded in the area ...
Axial Seamount - Ecology
... expedition, named the Canadian American Seamount Expedition (CASM), visited the northwestern edge of Axial Seamount's summit caldera to investigate a ... dives through the 1980s and 1990s revealed Axial Seamount's active state, including the only known black smoker in the northwest Pacific ... The temperature and composition of Axial Seamount's hydrothermal vents changes over time, but always maintains a roughly common identity, as do the vents' individual microbial communities ...