**Theory of Operation**

Using Morris' algorithm, the counter represents an "order of magnitude estimate" of the actual count. The approximation is mathematically unbiased.

To increment the counter, a pseudo-random event is used, such that the incrementing is a probabilistic event. To save space, only the exponent is kept. For example, in base 2, the counter can estimate the count to be 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and all of the powers of two. The memory requirement is simply to hold the exponent.

As an example, to increment from 4 to 8, a pseudo-random number would be generated such that a probability of .25 generates a positive change in the counter. Otherwise, the counter remains at 4.

The table below illustrates some of the potential values of the counter:

Stored binary value of counter | Approximation | Range of possible values for the actual count |
---|---|---|

0 | 1 | 0, or initial value |

1 | 2 | 1 or more |

10 | 4 | 2 or more |

11 | 8 | 3 or more |

100 | 16 | 4 or more |

101 | 32 | 5 or more |

If the counter holds the value of 101, which equates to an exponent of 5 (the decimal equivalent of 101), then the estimated count is 2^5, or 32. There is a very low probability that the actual count of increment events was 5 (which would imply that an extremely rare event occurred with the pseudo-random number generator, the same probability as getting 10 consecutive heads in 10 coin flips). The actual count of increment events is likely to be around 32, but it could be infinitely high (with decreasing probabilities for actual counts above 32).

Read more about this topic: Approximate Counting Algorithm

### Other articles related to "theory of operation":

**Theory Of Operation**

A **theory of operation** is a description of how a device or system should work. It is often included in documentation, especially maintenance/service documentation, or a user manual. It aids troubleshooting by providing the troubleshooter with a mental model of how the system is supposed to work. The troubleshooter can then more easily identify discrepancies, to aid diagnosis of problem.

IBM Redbooks are "Theories of operation" of their products.

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