Anti-cardiolipin Antibodies

Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are antibodies often directed against cardiolipin and found in several diseases, including syphilis, antiphospholipid syndrome, livedoid vasculitis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Behçet's syndrome, idiopathic spontaneous abortion, and systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE). They are a form of anti-mitochondrial antibody. In SLE, anti-DNA antibodies and anti-cardiolipin antibodies may be present individually or together; the two types of antibodies act independently. This is in contrast to rheumatoid arthritis with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) because anti-cardiolipin antibodies are present in both conditions, and therefore may tie the two conditions together.

Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can be classified in two ways.

  • As IgM, IgG or IgA
  • As β2-glycoprotein dependent or independent
    • In autoimmune disease ACA are beta-2 glycoprotein dependent
    • syphilis ACA are beta-2 glycoprotein independent and can be assayed using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test

Read more about Anti-cardiolipin AntibodiesApolipoprotein H Involvement

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