There are many anaerobic fermentative reactions.
Fermentative anaerobic organisms mostly use the lactic acid fermentation pathway:
The energy released in this equation is approximately 150 kJ per mol, which is conserved in regenerating two ATP from ADP per glucose. This is only 5% of the energy per sugar molecule that the typical aerobic reaction generates.
Plants and fungi (e.g., yeasts) in general use alcohol (ethanol) fermentation when oxygen becomes limiting:
- C6H12O6 + 2 ADP + 2 phosphate → 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2↑ + 2 ATP
The energy released is about 180 kJ per mol, which is conserved in regenerating two ATP from ADP per glucose.
Anaerobic bacteria and archaea use these and many other fermentative pathways, e.g., propionic acid fermentation, butyric acid fermentation, solvent fermentation, mixed acid fermentation, butanediol fermentation, Stickland fermentation, acetogenesis, or methanogenesis.
Some anaerobic bacteria produce toxins (e.g., tetanus)
Other articles related to "fermentation":
... If both alcoholic and malolactic fermentation have run to completion, and neither excessive oxygen nor Brettanomyces yeast are present, this ought to cause no problems modern hygiene has largely eliminated ... If there is residual sugar, however, it may undergo secondary fermentation, creating dissolved carbon dioxide as a by-product ... that has not been put through complete malolactic fermentation may undergo it in bottle, reducing its acidity, generating carbon dioxide, and adding a diacetyl ...
Famous quotes containing the word fermentation:
MIn the dark fermentation of earth,
In the never idle workshop of nature,
In the eternal movement,
Ye shall find yourselves again.”
—Matthew Arnold (18221888)
“Two principles, according to the Settembrinian cosmogony, were in perpetual conflict for possession of the world: force and justice, tyranny and freedom, superstition and knowledge; the law of permanence and the law of change, of ceaseless fermentation issuing in progress. One might call the first the Asiatic, the second the European principle.”
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—Jacques Roumain (19071945)