Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (Persian : ابن هيثم, Arabic: أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 in Basra – c. 1040 in Cairo) was a Muslim scientist and polymath described in various sources as either Persian or Arab. polymath, mathmatician, astronomer and philosopher. He made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to physics, astronomy, mathematics, ophthalmology, philosophy, visual perception, and to the scientific method. He also wrote insightful commentaries on works by Aristotle, Ptolemy, and the Greek mathematician Euclid.

He is frequently referred to as Ibn al-Haytham, and sometimes as al-Basri (Arabic: البصري), after his birthplace in the city of Basra. He was also nicknamed Ptolemaeus Secundus ("Ptolemy the Second") or simply "The Physicist" in medieval Europe.

Born circa 965, in Basra, present-day Iraq, he lived mainly in Cairo, Egypt, dying there at age 74. According to one version of his biography, overconfident about practical application of his mathematical knowledge, he assumed that he could regulate the floods of the Nile. After being ordered by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth ruler of the Fatimid caliphate, to carry out this operation, he quickly perceived the impossibility of what he was attempting to do, and retired from engineering. Fearing for his life, he feigned madness and was placed under house arrest, during and after which he devoted himself to his scientific work until his death.

Read more about Alhazen:  Book of Optics, Mathematical Works, Works

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... Islamic scientists Alkindus (al-Kindi) and Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham) ... in optics was primarily oriented by the legacy of Alhazen through a Latin translation of the latter's monumental Kitab al-manazir (De aspectibus Perspectivae The Optics), while the impact of the tradition of ... legacy of Islamic opticians, mainly Alhazen, who was in his turn influenced by Ibn Sahl's 10th century legacy in dioptrics ...
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... of the most important scientific works to be translated was Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)'s Book of Optics (1021) ... Alhazen's book was notable for his early use of an experiment based scientific method, in which he developed a theory of vision and light which built on the work of the Roman writer Ptolemy (but which rejected ... the intellectual progenitor of the Protestant Reformation, referred to Alhazen in discussing the seven deadly sins in terms of the distortions in the seven types of mirrors analyzed in De ...