Russia, Ukraine and Some Other Former USSR Republics
In Russia, Ukraine and some other former USSR republics educational degrees are awarded after finishing college education. There are several levels of education one must choose between 2nd and 3rd year usually on the 3rd year of study.
- Bachelor degree - usually takes 4 years of college. (minimum level to be recognized as having Higher Education)
- Specialist degree is awarded after 5 years of college. (4 + 1)
- Master (Magister) degree is awarded after 6 years of college. (4 + 2)
(But Specialist degree can appear equivalent to Magister degree by reason of equivalence of amount of educational time). Usually Specialist or Magister degrees incorporates Bachelor degree in them, but only high level degree is stated in final diploma. Specialist and Magister degrees require taking final state exams and written work on practical application of studied skills or research thesis (usually 70-100 pages) and is roughly equivalent to Master's degree.
The first level academic degree is called "Kandidat nauk" (that could verbatim translated "Candidate of Sciences"). This degree requires extensive research efforts, taking some classes, publications in peer-reviewed academic journals (usually 3 publications suffice), taking 3 exams (one in their speciality, one in a foreign language and one in the history and philosophy of science) and writing and defending an in-depth thesis (80-200 pages) called a "dissertation".
Finally, there is a "Doktor Nauk" (that could verbatim translated "Doctor of Sciences") degree in Russia and some former USSR academic environment. This degree is granted for contributions in a certain field (formally - who established new direction or new field in science). It requires discovery of new phenomenon, or development of new theory, or essential development of new direction, etc. There is no equivalent of this "doctor of sciences" degree in US academic system. It is roughly equivalent to Habilitation in Germany, France, Austria, and some other European countries.
In countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition at the level of the first doctoral degree. In countries with only one doctoral degree, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this degree.
According to "Guidelines for the recognition of Russian qualifications in the other countries" In countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees, the degree of Doktor Nauk should be considered for recognition at the level of the second doctoral degree. In countries in which only one doctoral degree exists, the degree of Doktor Nauk should be considered for recognition at the level of this degree.
According to par.262 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) UNESCO 2011, for purposes of international educational statistics 1. PhD is equivalent to Kandidat Nauk, 2. DPhil to Doktor Nauk/Philosophy, 3. D.Lit to Doktor Nauk in Literature, 4. D.Sc to Doktor Nauk of Natural Science, 5. LL.D to Doktor Nauk of Legal Science.
Famous quotes containing the word republics:
“Royalty is a government in which the attention of the nation is concentrated on one person doing interesting actions. A Republic is a government in which that attention is divided between many, who are all doing uninteresting actions. Accordingly, so long as the human heart is strong and the human reason weak, Royalty will be strong because it appeals to diffused feeling, and Republics weak because they appeal to the understanding.”
—Walter Bagehot (18261877)