Yom Kippur War

The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War (Hebrew: מלחמת יום הכיפורים‎ Milẖemet Yom HaKipurim or מלחמת יום כיפור Milẖemet Yom Kipur; Arabic: حرب أكتوبر‎ ḥarb ʾUktōbar or حرب تشرين ḥarb Tišrīn), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War and the Fourth Arab–Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria.

The war began when the coalition launched a joint surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism, which happened to occur that year during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Egyptian and Syrian forces crossed ceasefire lines to enter the Israeli-held Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights respectively, which had been captured and occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War. Both the United States and the Soviet Union initiated massive resupply efforts to their respective allies during the war, and this led to a near-confrontation between the two nuclear superpowers.

The war began with a massive and successful Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal during the first three days, after which they dug in, settling into a stalemate. The Syrians coordinated their attack on the Golan Heights to coincide with the Egyptian offensive and initially made threatening gains against the greatly outnumbered Israelis. Within a week, Israel recovered and launched a four-day counter-offensive, driving deep into Syria. As Sadat believed that capturing two strategic passes located deeper in the Sinai would make his position stronger during the negotiations, he ordered the Egyptians to go back on the offensive, but they were decisively defeated; the Israelis then counterattacked at the seam between the two Egyptian armies, crossed the Suez Canal, and advanced southward and westward in over a week of heavy fighting while suffering severe casualties especially during the battle of the Chinese Farm.

On October 22 a United Nations-brokered ceasefire quickly unraveled, with each side blaming the other for the breach. By October 24, the Israelis had improved their positions considerably and completed their encirclement of Egypt's Third Army and the city of Suez. This development led to tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. As a result, a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war. At the conclusion of hostilities, Israeli forces were 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Damascus and 101 kilometres (63 mi) from Cairo.

The war had far-reaching implications. The Arab World, which had been humiliated by the lopsided rout of the Egyptian–Syrian–Jordanian alliance in the Six-Day War, felt psychologically vindicated by early successes in the conflict. In Israel, despite impressive operational and tactical achievements on the battlefield, the war effectively ended its sense of invincibility and complacency. The war also challenged many American assumptions; the United States initiated new efforts at mediation and peacemaking. These changes paved the way for the subsequent peace process. The Camp David Accords that followed led to the return of the Sinai to Egypt and normalized relations—the first peaceful recognition of Israel by an Arab country. Egypt continued its drift away from the Soviet Union and left the Soviet sphere of influence entirely.

Read more about Yom Kippur War:  Background, Soviet Threat of Intervention, Weapons, Home Front During The War, Casualties, Long-term Effects

Other articles related to "yom kippur war, war, yom":

Yom Kippur War - Long-term Effects - Commemorations
... initial victories in the conflict eased Arab bitterness over Israel's victory in the 1967 Six-Day War and ultimately put the two nations on a path of peaceful ... The "Museum of October 6 War" was built in 1989 in the Heliopolis district of Cairo ... A similar museum, which was also built with North Korean assistance—the October War Panorama—operates in Damascus ...
Post–World War II Sherman Tanks - Conversion History - Israeli Variants - Artillery Tanks
... Was used in the War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War ... The gun saw combat in the Yom-Kippur War and the 1982 Lebanon War ... It was adopted in 1968 and used in the War of Attrition, the Yom Kippur War and the 1982 Lebanon War ...
Shayetet 13 - History - 1967-1973 - Yom Kippur War
... During the Yom Kippur War, S'13 commandos infiltrated Egyptian ports numerous times, sinking five Egyptian naval vessels and heavily damaging another ...
Mc Donnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II Non-U.S. Operators - Israel - Yom Kippur War
... The Yom Kippur War started with Egyptian and Syrian air strikes on Israel ... On the second day of the war, the IDF launched attacks with F-4s and A-4 Skyhawks but the enemy air defence and MiGs shot down six Phantoms and 30 A-4s ... During the war Israeli Phantoms first used the new AGM-65 Maverick missile ...
Pakistan–Syria Relations - Yom Kippur War
... During the Yom Kippur War of 1973 (usually referred to as the Ramadan war in Pakistan), Pakistan sent number of Military personals to help and provide training to Syrians ...

Famous quotes containing the words yom kippur, war and/or yom:

    Don: Why are they closed? They’re all closed, every one of them.
    Pawnbroker: Sure they are. It’s Yom Kippur.
    Don: It’s what?
    Pawnbroker: It’s Yom Kippur, a Jewish holiday.
    Don: It is? So what about Kelly’s and Gallagher’s?
    Pawnbroker: They’re closed, too. We’ve got an agreement. They keep closed on Yom Kippur and we don’t open on St. Patrick’s.
    Billy Wilder (b. 1906)

    The subjectivist in morals, when his moral feelings are at war with the facts about him, is always free to seek harmony by toning down the sensitiveness of the feelings.
    William James (1842–1910)

    Don: Why are they closed? They’re all closed, every one of them.
    Pawnbroker: Sure they are. It’s Yom Kippur.
    Don: It’s what?
    Pawnbroker: It’s Yom Kippur, a Jewish holiday.
    Don: It is? So what about Kelly’s and Gallagher’s?
    Pawnbroker: They’re closed, too. We’ve got an agreement. They keep closed on Yom Kippur and we don’t open on St. Patrick’s.
    Billy Wilder (b. 1906)