What is thiamine?

Thiamine

Thiamine or thiamin or vitamin B1 ( /ˈθaɪ.əmɨn/ THY-ə-min), named as the "thio-vitamine" ("sulfur-containing vitamin") is a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex. First named aneurin for the detrimental neurological effects if not present in the diet, it was eventually assigned the generic descriptor name vitamin B1. Its phosphate derivatives are involved in many cellular processes. The best-characterized form is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids. Thiamine is used in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In yeast, TPP is also required in the first step of alcoholic fermentation.

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Some articles on thiamine:

Sulbutiamine
... Sulbutiamine (brand name Arcalion) is a synthetic derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1) ... As a dimer of two modified thiamine molecules, it is a lipophilic compound that crosses the blood–brain barrier more readily than thiamine and increases the levels of thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters in ...
Amprolium - Synthesis
... The drug is a thiamine analogue and blocks the thiamine transporter of Eimeria species ... By blocking thiamine uptake it prevents carbohydrate synthesis ...
TPK1
... Gene Ontology Molecular function • thiamine diphosphokinase activity • ATP binding • kinase activity Cellular component • cytoplasm • cytosol Biological process ... which catalyzes the conversion of thiamine to thiamine pyrophosphate ...
Thiamine - Research - Persistent Carbenes
... The production of furoin from furfural is catalyzed by thiamine through a relatively stable carbene (an organic molecule containing unbonded valence ...
Factors Affecting Retrospective Memory - Disease - Korsakoff's Syndrome
... Korsakoff's is caused by a severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency due to chronic alcoholism or malnourishment ... Thiamine is necessary for the body to process carbohydrates ... This thiamine dificiency can lead to symptoms such as confusion, loss of balance, drowsiness, and some specific problems with vision ...