What is neurotransmitter?

  • (noun): Transmits nerve impulses across a synapse.

Neurotransmitter

Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse. Neurotransmitters are packaged into synaptic vesicles clustered beneath the membrane in the axon terminal, on the presynaptic side of a synapse. They are released into and diffuse across the synaptic cleft, where they bind to specific receptors in the membrane on the postsynaptic side of the synapse. Release of neurotransmitters usually follows arrival of an action potential at the synapse, but may also follow graded electrical potentials. Low level "baseline" release also occurs without electrical stimulation. Neurotransmitters are synthesized from plentiful and simple precursors, such as amino acids, which are readily available from the diet and which require only a small number of biosynthetic steps to convert.

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Some articles on neurotransmitter:

Sodium:neurotransmitter Symporter
... Sodiumneurotransmitter symporters is a family of neurotransmitter transporters ... Neurotransmitter transport systems are responsible for the release, re-uptake and recycling of neurotransmitters at synapses ... Plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters fall into two structurally and mechanistically distinct families ...
Neurotransmitter - Degradation and Elimination
... A neurotransmitter must be broken down once it reaches the post-synaptic cell to prevent further excitatory or inhibitory signal transduction ... For example, acetylcholine (ACh), an excitatory neurotransmitter, is broken down by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) ... Other neurotransmitters such as dopamine are able to diffuse away from their targeted synaptic junctions and are eliminated from the body via the kidneys, or ...
Sloshed - Pharmacology
... In the past, alcohol was believed to be a non-specific pharmacological agent affecting many neurotransmitter systems in the brain ... Among the neurotransmitter systems with enhanced functions are GABAA, 5-HT3 receptor agonism (responsible for GABAergic (GABAA receptor PAM), glycinergic, and cholinergic effects), nicotinic ... is a wave of further indirect effects involving a variety of other neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems, leading finally to the behavioural or symptomatic effects of alcohol intoxication ...
Reuptake
... Reuptake, or re-uptake, is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter of a pre-synaptic neuron after it has performed its ... for normal synaptic physiology because it allows for the recycling of neurotransmitters and regulates the level of neurotransmitter present in the synapse and ... Because neurotransmitters are too large and hydrophilic to diffuse through the membrane, specific transport proteins are necessary for the reabsorption of neurotransmitters ...
Amino Acid Neurotransmitter
... An amino acid neurotransmitter is a chemical substance which is able to transmit a nerve message across a synapse ... Neurotransmitters (chemicals) are packaged into vesicles that cluster beneath the axon terminal membrane on the presynaptic side of a synapse in a process called endocytosis ... Amino acid neurotransmitter release (exocytosis) is dependent upon calcium Ca2+ and is a presynaptic response ...