What is homologous recombination?

Homologous Recombination

Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA. It is most widely used by cells to accurately repair harmful breaks that occur on both strands of DNA, known as double-strand breaks. Homologous recombination also produces new combinations of DNA sequences during meiosis, the process by which eukaryotes make gamete cells, like sperm and egg cells in animals. These new combinations of DNA represent genetic variation in offspring, which in turn enables populations to adapt during the course of evolution. Homologous recombination is also used in horizontal gene transfer to exchange genetic material between different strains and species of bacteria and viruses.

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Some articles on homologous recombination:

Homologous Recombination - Technological Applications - Cancer Therapy
... Cancer cells with BRCA mutations have deficiencies in homologous recombination, and drugs to exploit those deficiencies have been developed and used successfully in clinical trials ... BRCA1 and BRCA2 are necessary for DNA repair by homologous recombination ... compensates for the lack of DNA repair by homologous recombination ...
Designer Baby - Future Technology - Homologous Recombination
... One of the more promising techniques of proper gene insertion is homologous recombination ... While homologous recombination avoids the problem of insertional mutagenesis, it is very inefficient, producing only about one out of a million cells that have actually taken up ...
DNA Repair Mechanisms - Double-strand Breaks
... Three mechanisms exist to repair double-strand breaks (DSBs) non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ), and homologous recombination ... To guide accurate repair, NHEJ relies on short homologous sequences called microhomologies present on the single-stranded tails of the DNA ends to be joined ... is no template available for repair by homologous recombination ...