What is basal ganglia?

Basal Ganglia

The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei of varied origin in the brains of vertebrates that act as a cohesive functional unit. They are situated at the base of the forebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and other brain areas. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, including voluntary motor control, procedural learning relating to routine behaviors or "habits" such as bruxism, eye movements, and cognitive, emotional functions. Currently popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection, that is, the decision of which of several possible behaviors to execute at a given time. Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a number of motor systems, and that a release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active. The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions.

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Some articles on basal ganglia:

Lateral Globus Pallidus
... They go also to other elements of the basal ganglia system, the striatum, the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the internal globus pallidus, where they release the neurotransmitter GABA ... that it does not work as an output base of the basal ganglia (not sending axons to the thalamus) but as the main regulator of the basal ganglia system ...
Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 - Expression - Brain - Basal Ganglia
... CB1 receptors are expressed throughout the basal ganglia and have well established effects on movement in rodents ... expression of both excitatory glutamate and inhibitory GABA interneurons in both the basal ganglia's direct and indirect motor loops, synthetic ...
Spasmodic Torticollis - Pathophysiology
... Although no lesions are present in the basal ganglia in primary spasmodic torticollis, fMRI and PET studies have shown abnormalities of the basal ganglia ... These neurotransmitters are secreted from the basal ganglia and travel to muscle groups in the neck ...
Basal Ganglia - History
... The acceptance that the basal ganglia system constitutes one major cerebral system took long to arise ... reconsideration by C├ęcile and Oskar Vogt (1941) simplified the description of the basal ganglia by proposing the term striatum to describe the group of structures consisting of the caudate nucleus ... Together, the two are known as the pallidonigral ensemble, which represents the core of the basal ganglia ...
Neuroanatomy Of Memory - Cortical Structures - Damage To The Cortex - Parkinson's Disease and Memory
... Parkinson's disease involves both damage to the basal ganglia and certain memory dysfunctions, suggesting that the basal ganglia are involved in specific types of memory ... This suggests that the basal ganglia work in both encoding and recalling spatial information ...