What are solitons?

Some articles on solitons, soliton:

Camassa–Holm Equation - Exact Solutions
... speed after interacting with other waves of the same type, we say that the solitary waves are solitons ... There is a close connection between integrability and solitons ... In the limiting case when κ = 0 the solitons become peaked (shaped like the graph of the function f(x) = e-
Soliton (optics) - Stability of Solitons
... We have described what optical solitons are and, using mathematics, we have seen that, if we want to create them, we have to create a field with a particular shape (just sech for the first order ... numerically, it is possible to show that mono-dimensional solitons are stable ... They are often referred as (1 + 1) D solitons, meaning that they are limited in one dimension (x or t, as we have seen) and propagate in another one (z) ...
Soliton (optics) - Spatial Solitons - Generation of Spatial Solitons
... The first experiment on spatial optical solitons was reported in 1974 by Ashkin and Bjorkholm in a cell filled with sodium vapor ... After these experiments spatial solitons have been demonstrated in glass, semiconductors and polymers ... During the last decade several experiments have been reported on solitons in nematic liquid crystals, also referred to as nematicons ...
Soliton (optics)
... In optics, the term soliton is used to refer to any optical field that does not change during propagation because of a delicate balance between nonlinear and linear effects in the medium ... There are two main kinds of solitons spatial solitons the nonlinear effect can balance the diffraction ... remain confined and it will propagate without changing its shape temporal solitons if the electromagnetic field is already spatially confined, it is possible to send pulses that will not change their ...
Soliton (optics) - Dark Solitons
... In the analysis of both types of solitons we have assumed particular conditions about the medium in spatial solitons, that means the self-phase modulation causes self-focusing in ... For higher order solitons we can use the following closed form expression It is a soliton, in the sense that it propagates without changing its shape ... Those solitons can actually be generated introducing short dark pulses in much longer standard pulses ...