Virtual Knot

In knot theory, a virtual knot is a generalization of the classical idea of knots in several ways that are all equivalent, introduced by Kauffman (1999).

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Virtual Knot - Overview
... In the theory of classical knots, knots can be considered equivalence classes of knot diagrams under the Reidemeister moves ... Likewise a virtual knot can be considered an equivalence of virtual knot diagrams that are equivalent under generalized Reidemeister moves ... A virtual knot diagram is a 4-valent planar graph, but each vertex is now allowed to be a classical crossing or a new type called virtual ...

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