Vancomycin

Vancomycin INN ( /væŋkɵˈmaɪsɨn/) is a glycopeptide antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Vancomycin was first isolated in 1953 at Eli Lilly, from a soil sample collected from the interior jungles of Borneo by a missionary. It is a naturally occurring antibiotic made by the soil bacterium Actinobacteria species Amycolatopsis orientalis (formerly designated Nocardia orientalis). It is a complex chemical compound and an example of a comparatively rare haloorganic natural compound, containing two covalently bonded chlorine atoms.

The compound was industrially produced by fermentation and given the generic name vancomycin, derived from the term "vanquish." The original indication for vancomycin was for the treatment of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a use kept alive for many years by the fact that compound had to be given intravenously and was thus not abused outside hospitals, and the fact that organisms were relatively slow to evolve to adapt to it, even in experiments.

For many years since its initial use, vancomycin has traditionally been reserved as a drug of "last resort", used only after treatment with other antibiotics had failed,. Recently, however, vancomycin resistant organisms are becoming common. Thus, vancomycin is increasingly being displaced from this role by newer antibiotics (linezolid (Zyvox), daptomycin (Cubicin), quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid), etc.).

Read more about VancomycinHistory, Biosynthesis, Pharmacology and Chemistry, Usage in Plant Tissue Culture, Toxicity

Other articles related to "vancomycin":

Tolevamer - Termination of Development
... In early 2008, a noninferiority study versus vancomycin or metronidazole found that about half of the patient in the tolevamer group did not complete the ... reaching clinical success was reduced significantly by tolevamer (6% recurrence rate), vancomycin (18%) and metronidazole (19%) ...
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus - Mechanism of Acquired Vancomycin Resistance
... Six different types of vancomycin resistance are shown by enterococcus Van-A, Van-B, Van-C, Van-D, Van-E and Van-F ... The significance is that Van-A VRE is resistant to both vancomycin and teicoplanin, Van-B VRE is resistant to vancomycin but sensitive to teicoplanin, and Van-C is only partly ... The mechanism of resistance to vancomycin found in enterococcus involves the alteration to the terminal amino acid residues of the NAM/NAG-peptide subunits, under ...
Vancomycin - Antibiotic Resistance - Acquired Resistance
... Evolution of microbial resistance to vancomycin is a growing problem, in particular, within healthcare facilities such as hospitals ... While newer alternatives to vancomycin exist, such as linezolid (2000) and daptomycin (2003), the widespread use of vancomycin makes resistance to the drug a significant worry ... Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) emerged in 1987 ...
Daptomycin - Clinical Use - Efficacy
... been shown to be not inferior to standard therapies (nafcillin, oxacillin, flucloxacillin or vancomycin) in the treatment of bacteraemia and right-sided endocarditis ... MRSA skin or soft tissue infection with daptomycin against vancomycin, has been shown to result in faster recovery from skin and soft tissue infections (4 days versus 7 days) ... The main problems with this study were that vancomycin controls were historical (which means that the improved outcomes observed in the daptomycin treated patients could be due to improvements in ...
Clostridium Difficile - Treatment - Medications
... Oral vancomycin is second line for mild to moderate cases and is recommended first line for severe disease ... Vancomycin is the treatment of choice in the following cases no response to oral metronidazole the organism is resistant to metronidazole the patient is allergic to metronidazole the patient is either ... Vancomycin must be administered orally because intravenous administration does not achieve gut lumen minimum therapeutic concentration ...