Vanadium

Vanadium is a chemical element with the symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery gray, ductile and malleable transition metal. The element is found only in chemically combined form in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation. Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 by analyzing a new lead-bearing mineral he called "brown lead," and presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named erythronium (Greek for "red") since, upon heating, most of its salts turned from their initial color to red. Four years later, however, he was convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium. Chlorides of vanadium were generated in 1830 by Nils Gabriel Sefström who thereby proved that a new element was involved, which he named "vanadium" after the Germanic goddess of beauty and fertility, Vanadís (Freyja). Both names were attributed to the wide range of colors found in vanadium compounds. Del Rio's lead mineral was later renamed vanadinite for its vanadium content. Although Berzelius claimed to have first isolated vanadium in the 1830s, in 1867 Henry Enfield Roscoe showed that he had only obtained the oxide, and finally in 1869 Roscoe demonstrated a method to obtain the pure element.

Vanadium occurs naturally in about 65 different minerals and in fossil fuel deposits. It is produced in China and Russia from steel smelter slag; other countries produce it either from the flue dust of heavy oil, or as a byproduct of uranium mining. It is mainly used to produce specialty steel alloys such as high speed tool steels. The most important industrial vanadium compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid.

Large amounts of vanadium ions are found in a few organisms, possibly as a toxin. The oxide and some other salts of vanadium have moderate toxicity. Particularly in the ocean, vanadium is used by some life forms as an active center of enzymes, such as the vanadium bromoperoxidase of some ocean algae. Vanadium is probably a micronutrient in mammals, including humans, but its precise role in this regard is unknown.

Read more about Vanadium:  History, Characteristics, Occurrence, Production, Biological Role, Safety

Other articles related to "vanadium":

Vanadium - Safety
... All vanadium compounds should be considered toxic ... and Health Administration (OSHA) has set an exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3 for vanadium pentoxide dust and 0.1 mg/m3 for vanadium pentoxide fumes in workplace air for an 8-hour workday, 40-hour ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended that 35 mg/m3 of vanadium be considered immediately dangerous to life and health ...
CPM S30V Steel
... Its chemistry promotes the formation and even distribution of vanadium carbides, which are harder and more effective at cutting than chromium carbides ... These vanadium carbides give the steel a very refined grain, further improving the sharpness and toughness ... follows Carbon 1.45%, Chromium 14.00%, Vanadium 4.00%, Molybdenum 2.00% ...
Panzhihua New Steel And Vanadium
... Panzhihua New Steel Vanadium Company Limited (SZSE 000629), parented by Panzhihua Iron and Steel, involves in the manufacture and sales of iron, steel and ... Its name was changed to Panzhihua New Steel Vanadium Company Limited in 1998 ...
Schreyerite - Introduction
... Investigation of deposits of green vanadium-bearing kornerupine, revealed the presence of a new vanadium mineral through observations in reflected light ... A polymorph of kyzylkumite, it occurs in highly twinned unmixed grains in vanadium-bearing rutile that occurs as idiomorphic crystals in kornerupine-bearing quartz-biotite-sillimanite gneiss ...
Patronite
... Patronite is the vanadium sulfide mineral with formula VS4 ... bonding and nonbonding contacts between the vanadium centers ... The vanadium is octa-coordinated, which is an uncommon geometry for this metal ...