United States Circuit Court - Judges

Judges

Although any district court judge could be authorized to act as a circuit judge, only fifty judges solely designated as circuit court judges were ever appointed. These can be broadly categorized into four groups:

  1. Judges appointed pursuant to the Midnight Judges Act on or after February 20, 1801, and thereafter removed from office with the repeal of that Act on July 1, 1802.
  2. Judges appointed to the D.C. Circuit, abolished on March 3, 1863
  3. Judges appointed after 1869 pursuant to the Circuit Judges Act of 1869; those in office on June 16, 1891 were transferred to the newly created United States courts of appeals by operation of law, that is, without action on the part of the President.
  4. One judge appointed to the California circuit, established in 1855 and abolished on March 3, 1863.

Three circuit court judges, Samuel M. Blatchford, David Josiah Brewer, and William Burnham Woods, were later appointed to the United States Supreme Court.

Circuit court judges appointed pursuant to the Midnight Judges Act:

Judge Circuit Began service Ended service Appointed by
Richard Bassett Third February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams
Egbert Benson Second February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams
Benjamin Bourne First February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams
Joseph Clay, Jr. Fifth February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams
William Griffith Third February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams
Dominic Augustin Hall Fifth January 26, 1802 July 1, 1802 Thomas Jefferson
Edward Harris Fifth May 3, 1802 July 1, 1802 Thomas Jefferson
Samuel Hitchcock Second February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams
Henry Potter Fifth January 26, 1802 April 7, 1802 Thomas Jefferson
Philip Barton Key Fourth February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams
John A. Lowell First February 20, 1801 May 6, 1802 John Adams
Charles Magill Fourth February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams
Jeremiah Smith First February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams
George Keith Taylor Fourth February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams
William McClung Sixth February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams
William Tilghman Third February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams
Oliver Wolcott, Jr. Second February 20, 1801 July 1, 1802 John Adams

Judges of the D.C. Circuit:

Judge Circuit Began service Ended service Appointed by
Allen Bowie Duckett D.C. March 17, 1806 July 19, 1809 Thomas Jefferson
James Dunlop D.C. February 3, 1846
November 27, 1855
November 27, 1855
March 3, 1863
James K. Polk
Franklin Pierce
(as chief judge)
William Cranch D.C. February 28, 1801
February 24, 1806
February 24, 1806
September 1, 1855
John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
(as chief judge)
Nicholas Battalle Fitzhugh D.C. November 25, 1803 December 31, 1814 Thomas Jefferson
James Markham Marshall D.C. March 3, 1801 November 16, 1803 John Adams
William Kilty D.C. January 26, 1802 January 27, 1806 Thomas Jefferson
(as chief judge)
William Matthew Merrick D.C. December 14, 1855 March 3, 1863 Franklin Pierce
James Sewall Morsell D.C. January 11, 1815 March 3, 1863 James Madison
Buckner Thruston D.C. December 14, 1809 August 30, 1845 James Madison

Circuit court judges appointed pursuant to the 1869 Act:

Judge Circuit Began service Ended service Appointed by
Marcus Wilson Acheson Third February 3, 1891 June 16, 1891 Benjamin Harrison
John Baxter Sixth December 13, 1877 April 2, 1886 Rutherford B. Hayes
Samuel M. Blatchford Second March 4, 1878 March 22, 1882 Rutherford B. Hayes
Hugh Lennox Bond Fourth July 13, 1870 June 16, 1891 Ulysses Grant
David Josiah Brewer Eighth March 31, 1884 January 6, 1890 Chester A. Arthur
Henry Clay Caldwell Eighth March 4, 1890 June 16, 1891 Benjamin Harrison
LeBaron Bradford Colt First July 5, 1884 June 16, 1891 Chester A. Arthur
John Forrest Dillon Eighth December 22, 1869 September 1, 1879 Ulysses Grant
Thomas Drummond Seventh December 22, 1869 July 18, 1884 Ulysses Grant
Halmer Hull Emmons Sixth January 17, 1870 May 14, 1877 Ulysses Grant
Walter Quintin Gresham Seventh December 9, 1884 June 16, 1891 Chester A. Arthur
Howell Edmunds Jackson Sixth April 12, 1886 June 16, 1891 Grover Cleveland
Alexander Smith Johnson Second December 15, 1875 January 26, 1878 Ulysses Grant
Emile Henry Lacombe Second February 28, 1888 June 16, 1891 Grover Cleveland
John Lowell First December 18, 1878 May 1, 1884 Rutherford B. Hayes
George Washington McCrary Eighth December 9, 1879 March 18, 1884 Rutherford B. Hayes
William McKennan Third December 22, 1869 January 3, 1891 Ulysses Grant
Don Albert Pardee Fifth May 13, 1881 June 16, 1891 James A. Garfield
Lorenzo Sawyer Ninth January 10, 1870 June 16, 1891 Ulysses Grant
George Foster Shepley First December 22, 1869 July 20, 1878 Ulysses Grant
William James Wallace Second April 6, 1882 June 16, 1891 Chester A. Arthur
Lewis Bartholomew Woodruff Second December 22, 1869 September 10, 1875 Ulysses Grant
William Burnham Woods Fifth December 22, 1869 December 23, 1880 Ulysses Grant

Circuit court judge of California:

Judge Circuit Began service Ended service Appointed by
Matthew Hall McAllister California March 3, 1855 January 12, 1863 Franklin Pierce

Read more about this topic:  United States Circuit Court

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