Two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy - Resolved-spectrum Methods

Resolved-spectrum Methods

Unlike correlated spectra, resolved spectra spread the peaks in a 1D-NMR experiment into two dimensions without adding any extra peaks. These methods are usually called J-resolved spectroscopy, but are sometimes also known as chemical shift resolved spectroscopy or δ-resolved spectroscopy. They are useful for analysing molecules for which the 1D-NMR spectra contain overlapping multiplets as the J-resolved spectrum vertically displaces the multiplet from each nuclei by a different amount. Each peak in the 2D spectrum will have the same horizontal coordinate that it has in a non-decoupled 1D spectrum, but its vertical coordinate will be the chemical shift of the single peak that the nucleus has in a decoupled 1D spectrum.

For the heteronuclear version, the simplest pulse sequence used is called a Müller–Kumar–Ernst (MKE) experiment, which has a single 90° pulse for the heteronucleus for the preparation period, no mixing period, and applies a decoupling signal to the proton during the detection period. There are several variants on this pulse sequence which are more sensitive and more accurate, which fall under the categories of gated decoupler methods and spin-flip methods. Homonuclear J-resolved spectroscopy uses the spin echo pulse sequence.

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