Tramadol

Tramadol

Tramadol hydrochloride (trademarked as Conzip, Ryzolt, Ultracet, Ultram in the USA, Ralivia and Zytram XL in Canada) is a centrally acting synthetic analgesic used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain. The drug has a wide range of applications, including treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, restless legs syndrome, motor neurone disease and fibromyalgia. It was launched and marketed as Tramal by the German pharmaceutical company Grünenthal GmbH in 1977.

Tramadol is a very weak μ-opioid receptor agonist, induces serotonin release, and inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine. Tramadol is converted to O-desmethyltramadol, a significantly more potent μ-opioid agonist. The opioid agonistic effect of tramadol and its major metabolite(s) is almost exclusively mediated by such μ-opioid receptors. This further distinguishes tramadol from opioids in general (including morphine), which do not possess tramadol's degree of receptor subtype selectivity and which are much stronger opiate-receptor agonists. Similarly, the habituating properties of tramadol (such as they are) are arguably mainly due to μ-opioid agonism with contributions from serotonergic and noradrenergic effects.

Read more about Tramadol:  Medical Uses, Adverse Effects, Mechanism of Action, Metabolism, Legal Status, Proprietary Preparations, Veterinary Medicine

Other articles related to "tramadol":

Faxeladol
... It is related to tramadol and ciramadol ... Just like tramadol, it is believed faxeladol would have pain-relieving, and potent anti-depressant effects, due to its action on serotonin and noradrenaline ... It was developed shortly after tramadol in the late 1970s ...
O-Desmethyltramadol
... (O-DT) is an opioid analgesic and the main active metabolite of tramadol ... (+)-O-Desmethyltramadol is the most important metabolite of tramadol produced in the liver after tramadol is consumed ... Tramadol is demethylated by the liver enzyme CYP2D6 in the same way as codeine, and so similarly to the variation in effects seen with codeine, individuals ...
Zaldiar - Chemistry - Synthesis and Stereoisomerism
... (1R,2R)-Tramadol (1S,2S)-Tramadol (1R,2S)-Tramadol (1S,2R)-Tramadol The chemical synthesis of tramadol is described in the literature ... Tramadol has two stereogenic centers at the cyclohexane ring ... The drug tramadol is a racemate of the hydrochlorides of the (1R,2R)-(+)- and the (1S,2S)-(–)-enantiomers ...
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... Tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic with atypical opioid and antidepressant-like activity, is moderately effective in treating fibromyalgia pain ... Tramadol combined with paracetamol provides fast, lasting relief that is more effective than either drug alone ...
Tramadol - Veterinary Medicine
... Tramadol may be used to treat post-operative, injury-related, and chronic (e.g ... Tramadol comes in ampules in addition to the tablets, capsules, powder for reconstitution, and oral syrups and liquids the fact that its characteristic taste is distasteful to ... determination of the efficacy and safety of tramadol in reptiles or amphibians are available, and, following the pattern of all other drugs, it ...