Tonearm

Tonearm

The phonograph, record player, or gramophone (from the Greek: γράμμα, gramma, "letter" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice"), is a device introduced in 1877 for the recording and reproduction of sound recordings. The recordings played on such a device generally consist of wavy lines that are either scratched, engraved, or grooved onto a rotating cylinder or disc. As the cylinder or disc rotates, a stylus or needle traces the wavy lines and vibrates to reproduce the recorded sound waves.

The phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison. While other inventors had produced devices that could record sounds, Edison's phonograph was the first to be able to reproduce the recorded sound. His phonograph originally recorded sound onto a tinfoil sheet phonograph cylinder, and could both record and reproduce sounds. Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory made several improvements in the 1880s, including the use of wax-coated cardboard cylinders, and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a "zig zag" pattern across the record. At the turn of the 20th century, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to gramophone records: flat, double-sided discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center. Other improvements were made throughout the years, including modifications to the turntable and its drive system, the needle and stylus, and the sound and equalization systems.

The gramophone record was one of the dominant audio recording formats throughout much of the 20th century. From the mid-1980s, phonograph use declined sharply because of the rise of the Compact Disc and other digital recording formats. While no longer mass market items, modest numbers of phonographs and phonograph records continue to be produced in the second decade of the 21st century.

Read more about Tonearm:  Terminology, Improvements At The Volta Laboratory, Disc Versus Cylinder As A Recording Medium, Dominance of The Gramophone Record, Turntable Technology, Pickup Systems, Styli, Equalization, Arm Systems, Phonograph in The 21st Century, See Also

Other articles related to "tonearm":

Gramophone Record - Limitations - Vinyl
... Another problem arises because of the geometry of the tonearm ... Most turntables use a pivoting tonearm, introducing side forces and pitch and azimuth errors, and thus distortion in the playback signal ...
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0 to 20% Variable Pitch Adjustment All Metal Tonearm (234 mm effective length) Diecast Aluminum Platter (330 mm diameter) Direct Drive High Torque Platter Motor and Electronic Brake START/STOP Button 33 ...
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... Their first product was an air bearing straight line tracking tonearm for phonograph playback, this was the first implementation of a captured air bearing for tonearm use and was followed by a ...
Elektro-Mess-Technik - Phonograph Turntables
... The Danish firm Ortofon provided the tonearm for the 927 (‘RF-297’) and the first magnetic pickup officially installed by EMT on their turntables ... while the ‘927F’ could accommodate a second tonearm behind the platter, and ‘927st’ stereo version ... adapted to the new system with stereo cartridges, appropriate rewiring of the tonearm and the new stereo preamplifier ‘139st’ it was phased out ...