Toba Catastrophe Theory
The Toba supereruption (Youngest Toba Tuff or simply YTT) was a supervolcanic eruption that is believed to have occurred sometime between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago at Lake Toba (Sumatra, Indonesia). It is recognized as one of the Earth's largest known eruptions. The related catastrophe hypothesis holds that this event plunged the planet into a 6-to-10-year volcanic winter and possibly an additional 1,000-year cooling episode. This change in temperature is hypothesized to have resulted in the world's human population being reduced to 10,000 or even a mere 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a bottleneck in human evolution.
The Toba event is the most closely studied supereruption. In 1993, science journalist Ann Gibbons first suggested a link between the eruption and a bottleneck in human evolution. Michael R. Rampino of New York University and Stephen Self of the University of Hawaii at Manoa quickly lent their support to the idea. The theory was further developed in 1998 by Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Other articles related to "toba catastrophe theory, toba":
... earlier than previously thought, and in line with dating of the Toba eruption to around 66,000–76,000 years ago ... erectus soloensis on Java, and Homo floresiensis on Flores, survived because they were upwind of Toba ...
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