Timeline of The History of The Falkland Islands - 20th Century

20th Century

  • 1903: Christ Church Cathedral is completed.
  • 1914: Battle of Coronel and Battle of the Falkland Islands.
  • 1920: Falkland Islands Defence Force is formed following the First World War
  • 1921: The killing of fur seals is banned.
  • 1925: The "forest" at Hill Cove is enlarged, producing the most substantial stand of trees in the islands.
  • 1933: The famous whalebone arch is constructed outside of Christchurch Cathedral to celebrate the centenary of the British administration.
  • 1939: Battle of the River Plate. HMS Exeter shelters in the islands after suffering major damage in the battle.
  • 1941: The issue of the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands is raised by Argentina in a Message to Congress. This is the first time since the signing of the Convention of Settlement in 1850.
  • 1945: Formation of the United Nations, Argentina states its claim to the islands in its opening address.
  • 1946: Britain includes the Falkland Islands among the non-autonomous territories subject to its administration, under Chapter XI of the UN charter.
  • 1947: Britain first offers to take the sovereignty dispute over the Dependencies to the ICJ. Argentina does not accept.
  • 1948: Britain again offers to take the sovereignty dispute over the Dependencies to the ICJ. Argentina declines.
  • 1955: Britain unilaterally refers the sovereignty dispute over the Dependencies to the ICJ. Argentina indicates that it will not accept any judgement.
  • 1960s: Soviet Union expands interests in Antarctica and South Shetlands, and maintains "research vessels" in the South Atlantic until the 1990s.
  • 1960: UN Resolution 1514 (XV) calls for an end to colonisation. Britains lists the islands as a colony, Argentina protests.
  • 1961: Antarctic Treaty comes into force, all sovereignty claims in the Antarctic region are suspended.
  • 1962: Britain transfers administration of the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands and Graham Land from the Falklands to the British Antarctic Territory.
  • 1964: A Cessna 172 piloted by Miguel Fitzgerald lands on Stanley racecourse, plants the Argentine flag and hands over a letter claiming sovereignty to bemused residents .
  • 1965: December United Nations Resolution 2065 called upon Britain and Argentina to "proceed without delay with negotiations with a view to finding a peaceful solution to the problem bearing in mind the interests of the population of the Falkland Islands (Las Islas Malvinas)."
  • 1966: An Aerolíneas Argentinas DC-4 hijacked by 20 terrorists calling themselves 'Condors' crash lands on Stanley race course. Islanders assuming the aircraft was in trouble rush to assist and are taken hostage. Subjected to Country and Western music for 24 hrs the terrorists surrender and are repatriated to Argentina. Argentine tactical divers are landed by submarine ARA Santiago del Estero to conduct covert reconnaissance of suitable landing sites.
  • 1967: Britain opens negotiations with Argentina and indicates willingness to transfer sovereignty.
  • 1968: Falkland Islands Emergency Committee is formed to lobby on the Islanders behalf to remain British. A small private plane piloted by Miguel Fitzgerald crash lands on Eliza Cove Road during the visit of Lord Chalfont. Islanders reiterate their determination to remain British and reject suggestions of sovereignty transfer.
  • 1970: SS Great Britain is returned to Bristol for restoration.
  • 1971: Communications agreement signed between Britain and Argentina. Air links to the islands are established by LADE, Argentina's military airline, Britain promises a supply ship from Montevideo but later reneges. Islanders travelling through Argentina are forced to carry Argentine Identity Cards rather than a British passport. Argentine Government agrees to suspend sovereignty claims whilst attempting to win the islanders over.
  • 1972: Work starts on a temporary airfield at Port Stanley.
  • 1973: Newly elected President Juan Perón renews sovereignty claim in the UN, resolution 3160 urges negotiations but Britain refuses.
  • 1974: YPF becomes the exclusive supplier of oil and gas company to the islands. Britain proposes a condominium solution to the sovereignty dispute but this is rejected by the islanders.
  • 1975: Construction of a paved runway at Port Stanley commences. Lord Shackleton is asked to undertake an economic survey of the islands. Diplomatic relations between the UK and Argentina are broken.
  • 1976: RRS Shackleton is fired upon by the Argentine destroyer ARA Almirante Storni during Lord Shackleton's mission. Argentina establishes a military base on Southern Thule. Britain protests but seeks a diplomatic solution.
  • 1977: Operation Journeyman: in response to increasing tension with Argentina, the Callaghan Government sends a Royal Navy task force to the South Atlantic. Negotiations are re-opened with Argentina over the islands. Stanley airport opens.
  • 1978: Falkland Islands Association opens a London office to lobby Parliament on the islanders behalf.
  • 1979: Nicholas Ridley visits the Falkland Islands to canvass islanders views.
  • 1980: Nicholas Ridley proposes leaseback solution, it is rejected by the islanders.
  • 1981: British Nationality Act strips many islanders of British citizenship. It is announced that HMS Endurance is to be withdrawn and the British Antarctic Survey base in Grytviken is to close. Argentine scrap dealer Constantino Davidoff visits South Georgia without permission, setting of a chain of events resulting in the Falklands War
  • 1982: Various tensions, but mainly the desire of the Argentine military junta to distract attention from domestic economic and political ills, led to an Argentine invasion. The islands were later retaken by the UK. (See Falklands War.) In November, the United Nations General Assembly called on the UK and Argentina to resume sovereignty negotiations, but the UK refuses to discuss sovereignty unless it has the consent of the Islanders. An updated Shackleton report on the economic prospects for the islands is published following the conflict.
  • 1983: Franks Report into the causes of the Falklands War is published. British citizenship is restored to the islanders.
  • 1984: Britain and Argentina enter into talks in Berne, Britain refuses to discuss sovereignty without the consent of the islanders. The Falklands war memorial is dedicated on Liberation Day (June 14).
  • 1985: New Falkland Islands constitution is adopted. The Falkland Islands become a parliamentary representative democratic dependency. Falkland Islands Government assumes responsibility for all domestic matters. Mount Pleasant Airfield opens.
  • 1986: UN adopts an Argentine resolution calling for Britain to resume negotiations including sovereignty.
  • 1987: Establishment of the Falkland Islands Fishery regime, this becomes the major source of income for the islands.
  • 1989: Newly elected Argentine president Carlos Menem embarks on talks with Britain under the sovereignty umbrella.
  • 1990: Britain and Argentina resume diplomatic relations. A Chilean airline begins charter flights to Mount Pleasant Airfield.
  • 1991: Argentine next of kin visit the Argentine cemetery in Darwin.
  • 1994: Argentina enshrines its claim to the Falkland Islands in its constitution.
  • 1995: British and Argentine Governments sign an agreement concerning exploitation of oil deposits surrounding the islands. The Argentine warship ARA Granville harasses fishing vessels in Falkland Waters and threatens RFA Diligence. Regular visits by Argentine next of kin commences.
  • 1997: Constitutional amendment balances the number of elected officials between Stanley and Camp.
  • 1998: UK arms embargo on sales to Argentina is relaxed.
  • 1999: The Chilean government requests that its airlines stop flying to the Falklands in response to the arrest of Augusto Pinochet in London, prompting the Falkland Islanders to allow the British Government to enter negotiations with Argentina. An agreement between the British and Argentine Governments ends the ban on visits by Argentine nationals. Passenger flights over Argentine airspace are permitted in return.

Read more about this topic:  Timeline Of The History Of The Falkland Islands

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