A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness. Electronic semiconductor devices and optical coatings are the main applications benefiting from thin-film construction.
A familiar application of thin films is the household mirror, which typically has a thin metal coating on the back of a sheet of glass to form a reflective interface. The process of silvering was once commonly used to produce mirrors. A very-thin-film coating (less than a nanometer thick) is used to produce two-way mirrors.
The performance of optical coatings (e.g. antireflective, or AR, coatings) are typically enhanced when the thin-film coating consists of multiple layers having varying thicknesses and refractive indices. Similarly, a periodic structure of alternating thin films of different materials may collectively form a so-called superlattice which exploits the phenomenon of quantum confinement by restricting electronic phenomena to two-dimensions.
Work is being done with ferromagnetic and ferroelectric thin films for use as computer memory. It is also being applied to pharmaceuticals, via thin-film drug delivery. Thin-films are used to produce thin-film batteries. Thin films are also used in dye-sensitized solar cells.
Ceramic thin films are in wide use. The relatively high hardness and inertness of ceramic materials make this type of thin coating of interest for protection of substrate materials against corrosion, oxidation and wear. In particular, the use of such coatings on cutting tools can extend the life of these items by several orders of magnitude.
Research is being done on a new class of thin-film inorganic oxide materials, called amorphous heavy-metal cation multicomponent oxides, which could be used to make transparent transistors that are inexpensive, stable, and environmentally benign.
... Defects have been reported to flash by in the blink of an eye in thin films of colloidal crystals under oil using a simple optical microscope ...
... Amorphous phases are important constituents of thin films, which are solid layers of a few nm to some tens of µm thickness deposited upon an underlying substrate ... the micro structure and ceramics of thin films as a function of the homologous temperature Th that is the ratio of deposition temperature over melting ... Much research is carried out into thin amorphous films as a gas separating membrane layer ...
... PV technologies led to the consideration of thin films and concentrators ... Thin films are based on using thinner semiconductor layers to absorb and convert sunlight concentrators, on the idea of replacing expensive semiconductors with lenses or mirrors ... The first thin film technology to be extensively developed and manufactured was amorphous silicon ...
... Hydrogenography Kelvin probe force microscope Microfabrication Organic LED Sarfus Thin-film interference Thin-film optics ...
... Amorphous phases are important constituents of thin films, which are solid layers of a few nm to some tens of µm thickness deposited upon a substrate ... the micro structure and ceramics of thin films as a function of the homologous temperature Th that is the ratio of deposition temperature over melting temperature ... Much research is carried out into thin amorphous films as a gas separating membrane layer ...
Famous quotes containing the words films and/or thin:
“Does art reflect life? In movies, yes. Because more than any other art form, films have been a mirror held up to societys porous face.”
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“In the thin classroom, where your face
was noble and your words were all things,
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