Materials and Construction
The thermowell protects the instrument from the pressure, flow-induced forces, and chemical effects of the process fluid. Typically a thermowell is made from metal bar stock. The end of the thermowell may be of reduced diameter (as is the case with a tapered or stepped shank thermowell) to improve the speed of response.
For low pressures and temperatures, Teflon may be used to make a thermowell; various types of stainless steel are typical, with other metals used for highly corrosive process fluids.
Where temperatures are high and the pressure differential is small, a protection tube may be used with a bare thermocouple element. These are often made of alumina or other ceramic material to prevent chemical attack of the platinum or other thermocouple elements. The ceramic protection tube may be inserted into a heavy outer protection tube manufactured from silicon carbide or other material where increased protection is required.
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