The most significant dramatist of turn of the century France was Alfred Jarry. The impact of his plays, primarily Ubu Roi, was writ large upon both contemporary audiences, and has continued to be a major influence on, among others, Monty Python's Flying Circus and The Young Ones.
Avant-garde theatre in France after World War I was profoundly marked by Dada and Surrealism. The surrealist movement would continue to be a major force in experimental writing and the international art world until the Second World War and the surrealists technique was particularly well suited for poetry and theatre, most notably in the theatrical works of Antonin Artaud and Guillaume Apollinaire.
Theatre in the 1920s and 1930s went through further changes in a loose association of theatres (called the "Cartel") around the directors and producers Louis Jouvet, Charles Dullin, Gaston Baty and Ludmila and Georges Pitoëff. They produced works by the French writers Jean Giraudoux, Jules Romains, Jean Anouilh and Jean-Paul Sartre, and also of Greek and Shakespearean theatre, and works by Luigi Pirandello, Anton Chekhov and George Bernard Shaw.
Inspired by the theatrical experiments in the early half of the century and by the horrors of the war, the avant-garde Parisian theatre, "New theatre" or, as the critic Martin Esslin termed it, "Theatre of the Absurd," around the writers Eugène Ionesco, Samuel Beckett, Jean Genet, Arthur Adamov, Fernando Arrabal, refused simple explanations and abandoned traditional characters, plots and staging. Other experiments in theatre involved decentralisation, regional theatre, "popular theatre" (designed to bring the working class to the theatre), and theatre heavily influenced by Bertolt Brecht (largely unknown in France before 1954), and the productions of Arthur Adamov and Roger Planchon. The Avignon festival was started in 1947 by Jean Vilar who was also important in the creation of the T.N.P. or "Théâtre national populaire".
The events of May 1968 marked a watershed in the development of a radical ideology of revolutionary change in education, class, family and literature. In theatre, the conception of "création collective" developed by Ariane Mnouchkine's Théâtre du Soleil refused division into writers, actors and producers: the goal was for total collaboration, for multiple points of view, for an elimination of separation between actors and the public, and for the audience to seek out their own truth.
Other articles related to "20th century, century":
... In 1995, a Christian rock group, DC Talk, released an album titled Jesus Freak ... The song Jesus Freak from that album has since been covered by other Christian bands such as Chasing Victory and Newsboys, which features the former member of DC Talk Michael Tait ...
... The latter half of the 20th century saw the expansion of the city due to a combination of rural-urban migration and the consolidation of surrounding districts into the Trujillo metropolitan area ...
... World population increased from about 1.6 billion people in 1901 to 6.1 billion at the century's end ... a significant driver of many of the problems of the 20th century was overpopulation ...
... January 8, 1902 – A train collision in the original Park Avenue tunnel kills 17 and injures 38 ... June 15, 1904 – The General Slocum, carrying 1300 to a picnic site on Long Island, catches fire while on the East River alongside Astoria, Queens ...
Famous quotes containing the word century:
“The United States is just now the oldest country in the world, there always is an oldest country and she is it, it is she who is the mother of the twentieth century civilization. She began to feel herself as it just after the Civil War. And so it is a country the right age to have been born in and the wrong age to live in.”
—Gertrude Stein (18741946)