A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, instance court, judgment court, apex court, and highest court of appeal. Broadly speaking, the decisions of a supreme court are not subject to further review by any other court.
In a few places, the court named the "Supreme Court" is not in fact the highest court; examples include the Supreme Court of the State of New York and the former Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales. The highest court in some jurisdictions is not named the "Supreme Court"; for example, the High Court of Australia.
Supreme courts typically function primarily as appellate courts, hearing appeals from decisions of lower trial courts, or from intermediate-level appellate courts.
Some countries have multiple "supreme courts" whose respective jurisdictions have different geographical extents, or which are restricted to particular areas of law. In particular, countries with a federal system of government typically have both a federal supreme court (such as the Supreme Court of the United States), and supreme courts for each member state (such as the Supreme Court of Nevada), with the former having jurisdiction over the latter only to the extent that the federal constitution extends federal law over state law; the US states of Texas and Oklahoma also split the functions of a supreme court between separate courts for criminal and civil cases. Jurisdictions with a civil law system often have a hierarchy of administrative courts separate from the ordinary courts, headed by a supreme administrative court. A number of jurisdictions also follow the "Austrian" model of a separate constitutional court (first developed in the Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920).
Within the British Empire, the highest court within a colony was often called the "Supreme Court", even though appeals could be made from that court to the United Kingdom's Privy Council (based in London). A number of Commonwealth jurisdictions retain this system, but many others have reconstituted their own highest court as a court of last resort, with the right of appeal to the Privy Council being abolished.
In jurisdictions using a common law system, the doctrine of stare decisis applies, whereby the principles applied by the local court in its decisions are binding upon all lower courts; this is intended to apply a uniform interpretation and implementation of the law. In civil law jurisdictions the doctrine of stare decisis is not generally considered to apply, so the decisions of the supreme court are not necessarily binding beyond the immediate case before it; however, in practice the decisions of the supreme court usually provide a very strong precedent, or jurisprudence constante, for both itself and all lower courts.
Other articles related to "courts, court, highest court, supreme court, highest":
... The two major models for courts are the civil law courts and the common law courts ... Civil law courts are based upon the judicial system in France, while the common law courts are based on the judicial system in England ... In most civil law jurisdictions, courts function under an inquisitorial system ...
... AC (born 5 June 1945) is a Justice of the High Court of Australia which is the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy ...
... In a 9-0 decision, the Supreme Court extended the full protection of the First Amendment to the Internet in Reno v ... The court's decision extended the same Constitutional protections given to books, magazines, films, and spoken expression to materials published on the Internet ... The Court again ruled that any limitations on the internet were unconstitutional in American Civil Liberties Union v ...
... to certain viewpoints but not others face the highest level of scrutiny, and are usually overturned, unless they fall into one of the court's special exceptions ... An example of this is found in the United States Supreme Court's decision in Legal Services Corp ... In this case, the Court held that government subsidies cannot be used to discriminate against a specific instance of viewpoint advocacy ...
... His argument in court was he merely translated an English book for his Doctoral Thesis ... The court ruled in his favor and sentenced Chen Shui-bian to jail for libel ... He presented the video to the court, trying to overturn the court decision against him ...
Famous quotes related to supreme court:
“The Twist was a guided missile, launched from the ghetto into the very heart of suburbia. The Twist succeeded, as politics, religion, and law could never do, in writing in the heart and soul what the Supreme Court could only write on the books.”
—Eldridge Cleaver (b. 1935)
“Henderson: What about Congress and the Supreme Court and the President? We got to pay them, dont we?
Grandpa: Not with my money, no sir.”
—Robert Riskin (18971955)
“Theyre two good old friends of mine. I call them Constitution and The Bill of Rights. A most dependable team for long journeys. Then Ive got another one called Missouri Compromise. And a Supreme Courta fine, dignified horse, though you have to push him on every now and then.”
—Dan Totheroh (18951976)
“... the outcome of the Clarence Thomas hearings and his subsequent appointment to the Supreme Court shows how misguided, narrow notions of racial solidarity that suppress dissent and critique can lead black folks to support individuals who will not protect their rights.”
—bell hooks (b. c. 1955)