Sultan

Sultan (Arabic: سلطان‎ Sulṭān, ) is a noble title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership" and "dictatorship", derived from the masdar سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate.

The dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (Arabic: سلطنة‎).

A feminine form, used by Westerners, is sultana or sultanah; though the very styling misconstrues the roles of wives of sultans. In a similar usage, the wife of a German Field-Marshal might be styled Feldmarschallin (in French, similar constructions of the type madame la maréchale are quite common). The rare female leaders in Muslim history are correctly known as "sultanas". However, in the Sultanate of Sulu, the wife of the sultan is styled as the "panguian".

Among those modern hereditary rulers who wish to emphasize their secular authority under the rule of law, the term is gradually being replaced by king (i.e., malik in Arabic).

Read more about SultanCompound Ruler Titles, Contemporary Sovereign Sultanates, Princely and Aristocratic Titles, Military Rank

Other articles related to "sultan":

Sultan, Washington - Demographics
... There were 1,211 households out of which 42.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.1% were non-families. 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older ...
Idris Shah II Of Perak
... Sultan Idris Iskandar Shah II, (12 August 1924 – 31 January 1984) was the Sultan of the Malaysian state of Perak from 1963 until his death in 1984 ... He was the son of Sultan Iskandar and a first cousin once removed of Sultan Azlan Shah ...
Oda (harem) - History
... period the harem division of the Topkapı Palace was home to the Valide sultan (Sultan's mother) the odalisques and wives of the Sultan and the rest of his family, including children and ...
1962 In Malaya - Incumbents - State Level
... Sultan of Johor Sultan Ismail Sultan of Kedah Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah Sultan of Kelantan Sultan Yahya Petra Raja of Perlis Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin (Regent) Sultan of Perak ...
1977 In Malaysia - Incumbents - State Level
... Sultan of Johor Sultan Ismail Sultan of Kedah Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah Sultan of Kelantan Tengku Ismail Petra (Regent) Raja of Perlis Tuanku Syed Putra ...