Substantia Nigra

The substantia nigra is a brain structure located in the mesencephalon (midbrain) that plays an important role in reward, addiction, and movement. Substantia nigra is Latin for "black substance", reflecting the fact that parts of the substantia nigra appear darker than neighboring areas due to high levels of melanin in dopaminergic neurons. Parkinson's disease is characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

Although the substantia nigra appears as a continuous band in brain sections, anatomical studies have found that it actually consists of two parts with very different connections and functions: the pars compacta and pars reticulata. The pars compacta serves mainly as an input to the basal ganglia circuit, supplying the striatum with dopamine. The pars reticulata, on the other hand, serves mainly as an output, conveying signals from the basal ganglia to numerous other brain structures.

Read more about Substantia Nigra:  Anatomy, Function, Pathophysiology, Chemical Modification of The Substantia Nigra, Additional Images

Other articles related to "substantia nigra, nigra":

Substantia Nigra - Additional Images
... Schematic representation of the chief ganglionic categories (I to V) Deep dissection of brain-stem ... Lateral view Deep dissection of brain-stem ...
Primate Basal Ganglia System - Pallido-nigral Set and Pacemaker - Constitution - Substantia Nigra
... The substantia nigra was first called the "tache noire" or "locus niger" (black spot) by Vicq d'Azyr (1786), then "substantia nigra" ('black substance ... The "nucleus substantiae nigrae", the nigrum, or nigra in fact comprises two adjoining but contrasted components one of which is not black but pale ... of the neuronal type of the pallidum and that of the nigra was emphazised as soon as in 1896 by Mirto ...
Science and The Melanin Theory
... It is also claimed that, because neuromelanin, which is found in the substantia nigra (in Latin, literally "black substance") of the human brain, plays a role in the transmission of neuronal impulses, higher ... However, no direct correlation between skin color and the level of melanin in the substantia nigra has been observed ... correlation between cutaneous melanin and the substantia nigra vis-a-vis Parkinson's disease, a neurological disease condition in which there is a loss of ...
Basal Ganglia
... the striatum, the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the subthalamic nucleus ... The substantia nigra is the source of the striatal input of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which plays an important role in basal ganglia function ... which involves degeneration of the dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and Huntington's disease, which primarily involves damage to the striatum ...
MPTP - Toxicity
... a part of the brain called the pars compacta of the substantia nigra ... The direction of complex movement is based from the substantia nigra to the putamen and caudate nucleus, which then relay signals to the rest of the brain ... Mice were thought to only suffer from cell death in the substantia nigra (to differing degree according to the strain of mice used) but do not show Parkinsonian symptoms ...