Subnivean climate refers to the zone in and underneath the snow pack. From the Latin for "under" (sub) and "snow" (nives). This is the environment of many animals that remain active during the winter. This zone provides protection from predators and insulation from the elements. The subnivean climate is formed by three different types of snow metamorphosis: destructive metamorphosis, which begins when snow falls; constructive metamorphosis, the movement of water vapor to the surface of the snow pack; and melt metamorphosis, the melting/sublimation of snow to water vapor and its refreezing in the snow pack. These three types of metamorphosis transform individual snowflakes into ice crystals and create spaces under the snow where small animals can move.
... For the organisms, the subnivean zone becomes a blanket that provides insulation from the elements and protection from predators ... For snow found on mountain slopes the development of the subnivean zone leads to a weaker bottom layer and a dense top layer creating ideal avalanche conditions ...
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“A positive learning climate in a school for young children is a composite of many things. It is an attitude that respects children. It is a place where children receive guidance and encouragement from the responsible adults around them. It is an environment where children can experiment and try out new ideas without fear of failure. It is an atmosphere that builds childrens self-confidence so they dare to take risks. It is an environment that nurtures a love of learning.”
—Carol B. Hillman (20th century)