Stereotype Threat - Criticism


The stereotype threat explanation of achievement gaps has attracted criticism. According to Paul R. Sackett, Chaitra M. Hardison, and Michael J. Cullen, both the media and scholarly literature have wrongly concluded that eliminating stereotype threat could completely eliminate differences in test performance between European-American and African-American individuals. For example, Sackett et al. have pointed out that in Steele and Aronson's (1995) experiments where stereotype threat was removed, an achievement gap remained which was very close in size to that routinely reported between African-American and European-Americans' average scores on large-scale standardized tests such as the SAT (about one standard deviation). In subsequent correspondence between Sackett et al. and Steele and Aronson, Sackett et al. wrote that "They agree that it is a misinterpretation of the Steele and Aronson (1995) results to conclude that eliminating stereotype threat eliminates the African American-White test-score gap."

Gijsbert Stoet and David C. Geary reviewed the evidence for the stereotype threat explanation of the achievement gap in mathematics between men and women. They concluded that the relevant stereotype threat research has many methodological problems, such as not having a control group, and that the stereotype threat literature on this topic misrepresents itself as "well established". They concluded that the evidence is in fact very weak.

Whether the effect occurs at all has also been questioned, with researchers failing to replicate the finding. In followup work, Ganley et al. (2013) examined stereotype threat on mathematics test performance. They report a series of 3 studies, with a total sample of 931 students. These included both childhood and adolescent subjects and three activation methods, ranging from implicit to explicit. While they found some evidence of gender differences in math, these occurred regardless of stereotype threat. Importantly, they found "no evidence that the mathematics performance of school-age girls was impacted by stereotype threat". In addition, they report that evidence for stereotype threat in children appears to be subject to publication bias. The literature may reflect selective publication of false-positive effects in underpowered studies, where large, well-controlled studies find smaller or non-significant effects.

In a study designed to see whether incentives could overcome stereotype threat in mathematics tests, Fryer Levitt and List (2008) could not replicate the stereotype threat, finding a modest facilitation effect of threat for males and females.

Read more about this topic:  Stereotype Threat

Other articles related to "criticism":

Yoot Tower - Criticism
... The game was dismissed by some game review websites and magazines as being too much a rehash of the original SimTower ... Many wrote the game off as being basically identical to its predecessor ...
Joseph Justus Scaliger - Academic Output
... It was during this period of his life that he composed and published his books of historical criticism ... He was the first to lay down and apply sound rules of criticism and emendation, and to change textual criticism from a series of haphazard guesses into a "rational procedure subject to fixed laws" (Mark ... Instead, they valued his emendatory criticism and his skill in Greek ...
Yuri Knorozov - Critical Reactions To His Work
... scholar, Knorozov and his thesis came under some severe and at times dismissive criticism ... with his publications in spite of the criticism and rejection of many Mayanists of the time ... peer disputation, since his position and standing at the institute was not adversely influenced by criticism from Western academics ...
Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism - Overview
... The object of psychoanalytic literary criticism, at its very simplest, can be the psychoanalysis of the author or of a particularly interesting character in a ... In this directly therapeutic form, the criticism is very similar to psychoanalysis itself, closely following the analytic interpretive process discussed in Freud's The ... However, more complex variations of psychoanalytic criticism are possible ...
TSR, Inc. - Criticism
... The company was the subject of an urban myth stating that it tried to trademark the term "Nazi" ... This was based on a supplement for the Indiana Jones RPG, in which some figures were marked with "NaziTM" ...

Famous quotes containing the word criticism:

    As far as criticism is concerned, we don’t resent that unless it is absolutely biased, as it is in most cases.
    John Vorster (1915–1983)

    Like speaks to like only; labor to labor, philosophy to philosophy, criticism to criticism, poetry to poetry. Literature speaks how much still to the past, how little to the future, how much to the East, how little to the West.
    Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)

    Good criticism is very rare and always precious.
    Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)