Stallion - Reproductive Anatomy

Reproductive Anatomy

See also: Horse breeding and Horse anatomy

The reproductive system of the stallion is responsible for the sexual behavior and secondary sex characteristics (such as a large crest) of the stallion. The external genitalia comprise:

  • the testes, which are suspended horizontally within the scrotum. The testes of an average stallion are ovoids 8 to 12 centimetres (3.1 to 4.7 in) long;
  • the penis, within the prepuce, also known as the "sheath." When not erect, the penis is housed within the prepuce, 50 centimetres (20 in) long and 2.5 to 6 centimetres (0.98 to 2.4 in) in diameter with the distal end 15 to 20 centimetres (5.9 to 7.9 in). The retractor muscle contracts to retract the penis into the sheath and relaxes to allow the penis to extend from the sheath. When erect, the penis doubles in length and thickness and the glans increases by 3 to 4 times. The urethra opens within the urethral fossa, a small pouch at the distal end of the glans.

The internal genitalia comprise the accessory sex glands:

  • vesicular glands;
  • prostate gland; and
  • bulbourethral glands.

These contribute fluid to the semen at ejaculation, but are not strictly necessary for fertility

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