Spheniscinae - Systematics and Evolution - Fossil Genera

Fossil Genera

Order Sphenisciformes

  • Basal and unresolved taxa (all fossil)
    • Waimanu – basal (Middle-Late Paleocene)
    • Perudyptes (Middle Eocene of Atacama Desert, Peru) – basal?
    • Spheniscidae gen. et sp. indet. CADIC P 21 (Leticia Middle Eocene of Punta Torcida, Argentina)
    • Delphinornis (Middle/Late Eocene? – Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica) – Palaeeudyptinae, basal, new subfamily 1?
    • Archaeospheniscus (Middle/Late Eocene – Late Oligocene) – Palaeeudyptinae? New subfamily 2?
    • Marambiornis (Late Eocene –? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica) – Palaeeudyptinae, basal, new subfamily 1?
    • Mesetaornis (Late Eocene –? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica) – Palaeeudyptinae, basal, new subfamily 1?
    • Tonniornis (Late Eocene –? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
    • Wimanornis (Late Eocene –? Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica)
    • Duntroonornis (Late Oligocene of Otago, New Zealand) – possibly Spheniscinae
    • Korora (Late Oligocene of S Canterbury, New Zealand)
    • Kairuku (Late Oligocene of E South Island, New Zealand)
    • Platydyptes (Late Oligocene of New Zealand) – possibly not monophyletic; Palaeeudyptinae, Paraptenodytinae or new subfamily?
    • Spheniscidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Hakataramea, New Zealand)
    • Madrynornis (Puerto Madryn Late Miocene of Argentina) – possibly Spheniscinae
    • Pseudaptenodytes (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
    • Dege (Early Pliocene of South Africa) – possibly Spheniscinae
    • Marplesornis (Early Pliocene) – possibly Spheniscinae
    • Nucleornis (Early Pliocene of Duinfontain, South Africa) – possibly Spheniscinae
    • Inguza (Late Pliocene) – probably Spheniscinae; formerly Spheniscus predemersus
  • Family Spheniscidae
    • Subfamily Palaeeudyptinae – Giant penguins (fossil)
      • Crossvallia (Cross Valley Late Paleocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica) – tentatively assigned to this subfamily
      • Anthropornis (Middle Eocene? – Early Oligocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica) – tentatively assigned to this subfamily
        • Nordenskjoeld's Giant Penguin, Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi
      • Icadyptes (Late Eocene of Atacama Desert, Peru)
      • Palaeeudyptes (Middle/Late Eocene – Late Oligocene) – polyphyletic; some belong in other subfamilies
      • Pachydyptes (Late Eocene)
      • Anthropodyptes (Middle Miocene) – tentatively assigned to this subfamily
    • Subfamily Paraptenodytinae – Stout-footed penguins (fossil)
      • Arthrodytes (San Julian Late Eocene/Early Oligocene – Patagonia Early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
      • Paraptenodytes (Early – Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
    • Subfamily Palaeospheniscinae – Slender-footed penguins (fossil)
      • Eretiscus (Patagonia Early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
      • Palaeospheniscus (Early? – Late Miocene/Early Pliocene) – includes Chubutodyptes

The Early Oligocene genus Cruschedula was formerly thought to belong to Spheniscidae, however reexamination of the holotype in 1943 resulted in the genus being placed in Accipitridae. Further examination in 1980 resulted in placement as Aves incertae sedis.

Read more about this topic:  Spheniscinae, Systematics and Evolution

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