Sole (foot) - Human Anatomy - Muscles - Intrinsic

Intrinsic

First, second, and third muscle layers, and the dorsal and plantar interossei

The intrinsic muscles in the sole are grouped in four layers:

In the first layer, flexor digitorum brevis is the large central muscle located immediately below the plantar aponeurosis. It flexes the second to fifth toes and is flanked by abductor hallucis and abductor digiti minimi.

In the second layer, the quadratus plantae, located below flexor digitorum brevis, inserts into the tendon of flexor digitorum longus on which the lumbricals originates.

In the third layer, the oblique head of adductor hallucis joins the muscle's transversal head on the lateral side of the big toe. Medially to adductor hallucis are the two heads of flexor hallucis brevis, below the tendon of flexor hallucis longus. The considerably smaller flexor digiti minimi brevis on the lateral side can be mistaken for one of the interossei.

In the fourth layer. the dorsal and plantar interossei are located between and below the metatarsal bones and act as antagonists.

The central compartment is shared by the lumbricals, quadratus plantae, flexor digitorum brevis, and adductor hallucis; the medial compartment by abductor hallucis, flexor hallucis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi (often considered part of the former muscle); whilst the lateral compartment is occupied by extensor digitorum brevis and extensor hallucis brevis.

Read more about this topic:  Sole (foot), Human Anatomy, Muscles

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