Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) uses reversed-phase HPLC to interrogate SNPs. The key to DHPLC is the solid phase which has differential affinity for single and double-stranded DNA. In DHPLC, DNA fragments are denatured by heating and then allowed to reanneal. The melting temperature of the reannealed DNA fragments determines the length of time they are retained in the column. Using PCR, two fragments are generated; target DNA containing the SNP polymorphic site and an allele-specific DNA sequence, referred to as the normal DNA fragment. This normal fragment is identical to the target DNA except potentially at the SNP polymorphic site, which is unknown in the target DNA. The fragments are denatured and then allowed to gradually reanneal. The reannaled products are added to the DHPLC column. If the SNP allele in the target DNA matches the normal DNA fragment, only identical homoduplexes will form during the reannealing step. If the target DNA contains a different SNP allele than the normal DNA fragment, heteroduplexes of the target DNA and normal DNA containing a mismatched polymorphic site will form in addition to homoduplexes. The mismatched heteroduplexes will have a different melting temperature than the homoduplexes and will not be retained in the column as long. This generates a chromatograph pattern that is distinctive from the pattern that would be generated if the target DNA fragment and normal DNA fragments were identical. The eluted DNA is detected by UV absorption.
DHPLC is easily automated as no labeling or purification of the DNA fragments is needed. The method is also relatively fast and has a high specificity. One major drawback of DHPLC is that the column temperature must be optimized for each target in order to achieve the right degree of denaturation.
Read more about this topic: SNP Genotyping, Other Post-amplification Methods Based On Physical Properties of DNA
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