Reflexes in Slavic Languages
In South Slavic the vowel and the liquid metathesize, and as a side-effect the vowel lengthens (*e > *ē > ě, *a > *ā > a):
- *al > la
- *ar > ra
- *el > lě
- *er > rě
- PSl. *gardu > OCS gradъ ('settlement')
- PSl. *walti > Serbo-Croatian vlȃt ('blade, stalk')
- PSl. *wertmēn > OCS vrěmę ('time')
- PSl. *melka > OCS mlěko ('milk)
Compare the preserved VRC structure in Lithuanian gar̃das, váltis, Sanskrit vártman ('path'), English milk as opposed to the metathesized South Slavic RVC structure.
Word-initially, metathesis with lengthening occurred always only in south and central Slovak dialects (i.e. just like in South Slavic), and in the rest of West and East Slavic languages only when the syllable is under acute (rising) accent; compare: Proto-Slavic *a̋rdla ('plough'):
- Serbo-Croatian rȁlo
- Czech rádlo
- Russian rálo
If the syllable was not acuted, metathesis in West and East Slavic occurs without the lengthening so EPSl. *a retains short quantity and yields /o/; compare EPSl. *ȃlkuti ('elbow') > Serbo-Croatian lȃkat, but Czech loket.
Word-medially, on the other hand, the following occurs: in Polish and Sorbian languages metathesis without lengthening occurs; compare Polish brzeg, mleko, groch, młot as opposed to OCS brěgъ, mlěko, Slovene gràh, OCS mlatъ. In North-West Lechitic (northern Kashubian, Slovincian, Pomeranian and Polabian) *CalC and *CelC yield ClŭC (Polabian glåvă ‘head’, å < ъ), *CerC > CreC (without lengthening, as in Polish), while in *CarC, ar becomes ŭr, just like word-initially under acute (Polabian råmą ‘arm’ < *rъmę < *armę), but does not undergo metathesis. Compare Polabian porsą to Slovene prasè and Pomerian gard (often in toponymics, e.g. Białogard and similar) to OCS gradъ (note that unchanged ar in *gardŭ would have given or in Pomeranian). In Czecho-Slovak word-medial metathesis occurs with the lengthening, just as in South Slavic; compare Czech mlat, hrách to Polish młot, groch with /o/ inside. East Slavic languages manifest so-called pleophony (also called polnoglasie or full vocalization) - *CarC > CoroC, *CerC > CereC, and *CalC/*CelC > ColoC; compare Russian górod, béreg, mólot, molokó. Here the closed syllable problem is resolved by inserting another vowel after the liquid consonant. In North-West Lechitic the reflexes of *CelC and *CalC are the same.
Read more about this topic: Slavic Liquid Metathesis And Pleophony
Other articles related to "slavic, slavic languages, languages":
... The pre-Christian religions of the Slavic peoples probably died out slowly in the countryside after the official adoption of Christianity (Moravia in 863, Poland in 966 ... In the 19th century, many Slavic nations experienced a Romantic fascination with an idealised Slavic Arcadia believed to have existed before the advent of Christianity, combining such notions as the ... In the absence of extensive written or archaeological evidence for the destroyed Slavic religions, these artistic visions were important in rebuilding interest in the lost ...
... are found throughout Eurasia, the specific name pierogi, with its Proto-Slavic root "pir" (festivity) and its various cognates in the West and East Slavic languages, shows the name's ... The West Slavic Poles, Czechs, and Slovaks, as well as the East Slavic Belarusians, Russians, Ukrainians and Rusyns, and the Baltic Estonians, and Lithuanians ... In some East European languages, variants of this dish are known by names derived from the root of the word "to boil" (Russian варить, varit', Ukrainian варити, varyty ...
Famous quotes containing the words languages and/or reflexes:
“I am always sorry when any language is lost, because languages are the pedigree of nations.”
—Samuel Johnson (17091784)
“The source of our actions resides in an unconscious propensity to regard ourselves as the center, the cause, and the conclusion of time. Our reflexes and our pride transform into a planet the parcel of flesh and consciousness we are.”
—E.M. Cioran (b. 1911)