The most effective (60 to 80% reduction) antimicrobial washing is with ethanol, isopropanol, and n-propanol. Viruses are most affected by high (95%) concentrations of ethanol, while bacteria are more affected by n-propanol.
Unmedicated soaps are not very effective as illustrated by the following data. Health care workers washed their hands once in nonmedicated liquid soap for 30 seconds. The students/technicians for 20 times.
|group and hand skin condition||unwashed||washed|
|Health care workers healthy||3.47||3.15|
|Health care workers damaged||3.33||3.29|
An important use of hand washing is to prevent the transmission of antibiotic resistant skin flora that cause hospital-acquired infections such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. While such flora have become antibiotic resistant due to antibiotics there is no evidence that recommended antiseptics or disinfectants selects for antibiotic-resistant organisms when used in hand washing. However, many strains of organisms are resistant to some of the substances used in antibacterial soaps such as Triclosan.
One survey of bar soaps in dentist clinics found they all had their own flora and on average from two to five different genera of microorganisms with those used most more likely to have more species varieties. Another survey of bar soaps in public toilets found even more flora. Another study found that very dry soaps are not infected while all are that rest in pools of water. However, research upon soap that was specially infected found that soap flora do not transmit to the hands.
Other articles related to "removal":
... Jackson offered John Ross $3 million dollars and equivalent land in the west for the removal of the Cherokee Nation East Ross refused ... His brother Andrew, on the other hand, signed a removal treaty with terms so poor, even advocates of removal boycotted it ... a leading advocate of removal, was assassinated by James Foreman and his half-brother Anderson Springston while returning home from a meeting of the National Council ...
Famous quotes containing the word removal:
“Many a reformer perishes in his removal of rubbish,and that makes the offensiveness of the class. They are partial; they are not equal to the work they pretend. They lose their way; in the assault on the kingdom of darkness, they expend all their energy on some accidental evil, and lose their sanity and power of benefit.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“If God now wills the removal of a great wrong, and wills also that we of the North as well as you of the South, shall pay fairly for our complicity in that wrong, impartial history will find therein new cause to attest and revere the justice and goodness of God.”
—Abraham Lincoln (18091865)
“Anyone who seeks for the true causes of miracles, and strives to understand natural phenomena as an intelligent being, and not to gaze at them like a fool, is set down and denounced as an impious heretic by those, whom the masses adore as the interpreters of nature and the gods. Such persons know that, with the removal of ignorance, the wonder which forms their only available means for proving and preserving their authority would vanish also.”