Serratus Anterior Muscle - Evolutionary Variation

Evolutionary Variation

The muscles of the shoulder can be categorized into three topographic units: the scapulohumeral, axiohumeral, and axioscapular groups. Serratus anterior forms part of the latter group together with rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, levator scapulae, and trapezius. The trapezius evolved separately, but the other three muscles in this group evolved from the first eight or ten ribs and the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae (homologous to the ribs).

Functional demands has resulted in the evolution of individual muscles from the basal unit formed by the serratus anterior. In primitive life forms, the main function of the axioscapular group is to control the movements of the vertebral border of the scapula: fibers concerned with the dorsal movement of scapula evolved into the rhomboids, those with ventral motion into serratus anterior, and those with cranial movements into levator scapulae. The evolution of the serratus anterior itself has resulted in (1) grouping of its distal and proximal fibers, (2) size reduction of its intermediate fibers, and (3) the insertion of its dominant superior and inferior parts onto the superior and inferior angles of the scapula.

In primates, the thoracic cage is wide and the scapula is rotated onto its posterior side to have the glenoid fossa face laterally. Additionally, the clavicle take care of medial forces. In cursorial mammals (for example the horse and other quadrupeds), the scapula is hanging vertically on the side of the thorax and the clavicle is absent. Therefore, in climbing animals, the serratus anterior supports the scapula against the reaction forces of the free limb and exerts high bending forces on the ribs. To sustain these forces, the ribs have a pronounced curvature and are supported by the clavicle. In cursorial animals, the thorax is hanging between the scapulae at the serratus anterior and pectoralis muscles.

Read more about this topic:  Serratus Anterior Muscle

Other articles related to "evolutionary, variation, evolutionary variation":

List Of Fictional Diseases - In Video Games
... Forced Evolutionary Virus Fallout Originally known as the Pan-Immunity Viron Project, FEV, along with radiation, is responsible for many mutations in the wastelands ... Some GUILT survivors were also inflicted with a variation of the disease, dubbed the PGS (Post-GUILT syndrome) ... Hyper-evolutionary virus StarCraft The Hyper-evolutionary virus is a retrovirus produced by Zerg Queens ...
Fictional Diseases - In Video Games
... Forced Evolutionary Virus Fallout Originally known as the Pan-Immunity Viron Project, FEV, along with radiation, is responsible for many mutations in the ... Some GUILT survivors were also inflicted with a variation of the disease, dubbed the PGS (Post-GUILT syndrome) ... Hyper-evolutionary virus StarCraft The Hyper-evolutionary virus is a retrovirus produced by Zerg Queens ...
Evolution Of Hair - Evolution - Evolutionary Variation
... Evolutionary biologists suggest that the genus Homo arose in East Africa approximately 2.5 million years ago ... Further information Human evolutionary genetics ...
20th Century Discourses - Anthropology - Biological Anthropology: The Evolution of Culture
... Prima facie evidence of culture comes from within-species but across-group variation in behavior, as when a pattern is persistent in one community of ... Some of this variation may be the result of "environmental shaping" (there is more rainfall in western Africa, softening termite mounds and making ... that can only be assessed in their larger environmental and evolutionary contexts ...

Famous quotes containing the word evolutionary:

    The point is, ladies and gentlemen, that greed, for lack of a better word, is good. Greed is right. Greed works. Greed clarifies, cuts through, and captures the essence of the evolutionary spirit.
    Stanley Weiser, U.S. screenwriter, and Oliver Stone. Gordon Gekko (Michael Douglas)